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Have a question about the tricepts, close grip press. I went from pressing ,, down to lbs. So not being happy, I went to a tricept push down machine, and did per arm. Does it take longer for muscles to rebuild at age Is there any scale?? I ordered a pair of the lifting gloves that you recommend and boy was I glad I did. Takes a long time to get them, so if you want them quicker, go with a 2 or 3 day mailing. Leaving for the gym, go every 10 or 12 days now, but will change soon to about 15 to 20 days.

Older guys take longer. You mention using dumbbells. How are you restricting the range of motion to your strongest range? I use two hands to get to my strongest position, hold 5 seconds, then grab it with both hands and let it down. I also do my forearms the same way Ken. A barbell inside a power rack is better. It might help with your lagging arms. Also, using a biceps machine with both hands and then doing the static hold with one hand can also be effective.

Is this true, Pete? How much muscle weight can I expect to gain in the next month using SCT? Not sure how much weight I am losing is fat and how much is muscle. People do it all the time. But it takes careful control of training and calories. You need enough to build new muscle tissue but not so much that you gain fat.

People who are already too fat often build muscle and lose fat at the same time. That never, ever happens. Do you believe that? Nobody knows what you can gain or lose. You train hard and measure as you go. I have the same issue. Even if I try to provide some assistance with my grip, the weight is just too much. The hooks slide down past my outstretched fingers. I am enjoying the PFT gains though. Hi Pete, I am using the programme since 19 April and am making great progress.

Will this feeling go away after a time and will my sleep return to normal? Are there any other guys out there experiencing the same? How do I hasten overcoming this feeling?

I thank you in advance for your help. Les, this will go away. Its just a release of hormones from the workouts. Your body will adjust. Pete, I have contributed to this blog, occasionally, but I feel compelled to tell you this tale. At least my record book, anyway. Has it been around that long? Even experimented with partials. I loved your workout and quickly brought my full range, max on the bench from a fairly steady , struggle with over to a couple reps with , in less than 3 months.

I was really impressed except I just could not quite make the leap from a regular workout to laying off for weeks at a time. I experimented with sct and actually came up with my own version of what you now call PFW. I mixed really heavy partials with longer lay offs, especially on the big movements like deadlift into my workouts. Now, in my mid 50s, I had gotten up to six plates on the deadlift for My version of the workout went something like this: I would lift a weight heavy enough that at 5 seconds I am starting to lose it, at 7 it is down on the pins.

I might give it a little bounce at each second, so it was almost like doing 7 reps. I would then wait about a minute and do it again but this time I can not hold it past 5 seconds. Then wait as much as 3 minutes and do it one more time and usually can not hold it for a full 5 seconds. If I could hold it longer than 5 seconds on the second lift, I would increased it for the last lift. And, of course, on the third lift if I could hold it for 5 seconds I would increase the beginning weight on the next workout.

I was not very scientific about it and would do that every so often, sometimes on a regular basis, like once a week, sometimes I would not get around to it again for a few weeks. Today I lifted !!! I had about a 7 week lay off. Not to make excuses but, I had some work that backed up, had some crap piled up around my weight area, had a funeral to fly home for and a few other things that just got me out of the routine so I did not do a thing for this whole period. Oh I may have walked by the weight pile, felt guilty and did a quick set of presses or curls with dumb bells, but that was about it.

Today, I finally cleaned up the area, warmed up with 4 plates and was shocked at how light it felt. Jumped right to the 6 plates and was shocked again, actually did like 15 partial reps. First time I attempted it, I could not get it off the pins.

Rested for about 30 seconds, psyched myself up, set, ready, lift. I workout in cycles, which I know is not healthy, but because of life I may go months without working out then get back in the routine. Everytime I lay off, I gain weight as fat. For those who want to build their forearms, the information is in the arm training specialization workout — but only a fraction of people buy that compared to Train Smart.

Yeah, I sort of wondered that maybe you didnt put it in your full body workouts because people just dont do forearm exercises. Which is kinda sad in my opinion, because as you said in your free report forearms are one of the most noticed bodyparts.

Hi Ken, Sorry for the late reply, thank you for your kind words of encouragement and sound advise! My grip strength have increased greatly, I can lift now kilos dead lift and on the shrug, did that one twice.. Hi Greg or Pete, Sorry if this sounds stupid but please could you explain to me why a standing bicep curl is better than a seated one.

We say seated is better. We tested a few dozen experienced lifters and they scored better on average with the seated position. Standing was a very close second. I have my own gym with squat cage and olympics bar with wight up to kg. I going to start training according to your program and did my first bench yesterday static hold with kg. I will have to get some more plates soon.

I have been lifting for almost 30yrs and I feel broken from all my hard work. Your program gives me new inspiration and I think this time I will achieve my goals. Looking forward to your reply. Hey, anything you do — including washing your car or cutting your lawn — will impact recovery somewhat.

You never get something for nothing and all those other activities add to what your body has to deal with. That said, you can do whatever other activities you need to do and still train with SCT because you have meaningful numbers to tell you whether or not you got enough rest between SCT workouts. You can get an idea how to adjust your frequency from this article: Hi Pete, I am increasing the weights all the time, however, my bench press and close grip just stopped progressing.

Is it possible to increase in all areas and not improve in one or two? Am I maybe stressing my muscles too much doing close grip on the one day and 8 days later doing the bench press?

I look forward to your comments and those of the other guys as well. Soon some areas lag, usually because they need more rest. Just leave chest and triceps off your program for one cycle and see what happens when you try them again.

Now i would like to purchase one of your books. Can you tell what would be the best material for me? John, try the power factor routine. The problem is, and its the problem most our trainees have, is that they gain strength so quickly that they quickly outgrow the machines at the gym. I doubt your home gym will be able to keep up with your strength gains. Hi Pete and Greg, I was just wondering, what should I do to strengthen my wrists?

I find that on pushing exercises I naturally curl my wrists to be able to lift the weights. In most cases though this results in the wrists giving out before the targeted muscle. Is there any thing I could do strengthen my wrists or is it just the same as strengthening the forearms?

Rama, try to keep your wrist straight when you do the push. Think of it this way….. If you bend your wrist when you punch, you can and will hurt it, and possibly even break it because the force will not be supported by the bones in your arm. Do the same with the static lifts. Well I dont know why but I felt I am able to push more this way…. I thought it might have to do with the smith machines in my current gym I never had this problem in the previous gym I went to.

Thank you in advance for your answers. Les, it could be that your crunch is not as heavy as it should be. I know I can easily use the whole weight stack of any crunch machine that they have at the gym without so much as breaking a sweat.

So you may have to look at that. Some guys just find it harder to put muscle on the chest. That will definitely tax the fibers and the enzymes in the muscle and will push them to hypertrophy. Hi Pete, I have been practicing static and now power factor since when I purchased your Train Smart e-book.

I know there is a slight difference on on the triceps and pecs betwen the two lifts, but it seems that, basically the pecs, front delts and triceps are working hard in both workouts, causing a need for more recovery between workouts.

I have experimented, regrouping the exercises with many different arrangements and like your XFT, 3 day split where the legs are one day, pulls another day and pushes on a 3rd workout. Me and my brother are going to be living proof that this works, bring on the weights! Rene, congratulations on your results and welcome to the world of static contraction.

Now, I train once every 3 weeks and I never lose my muscle. Its an amazing feeling not to be tied to a gym anymore. Thanks for spreading the good word. With your help I believe static contraction will take off around the world! They are on different days because they are so similar. Most people have no trouble making steady progress with this split. If they did not I might suggest the A,B,C split but it is rarely needed.

I had to laugh when I read it again. What would be so impressive about that? Pete or Greg, I have an equipment question. When doing close grip bench or curls, a straight bar really hurts my wrists so I use an EZ curl bar.

The problem is that it is too short for the spread of pins on the power rack. I have used a regular bench with a narrow spread and would keep the bar above the racks, but with really heavy weight it can obviously be dangerous. Do you have any other suggestions? I usually work out alone. How to train forearms? Pete are you still selling that jackhammer product or what else can I get?

I never sold it, it was made by the folks who make the 1 ton hooks. They recently stopped making it. Hi Pete, can I have both? You can have both but they require different exercises. Grip machines are hard to find. A few years ago I started doing sct for forearms. No hanging my hands off a bench and curling my wrists, the weight I wanted to use was too heavy. I would lift the heaviest dumbell I could hold, hang it from my side or maybe lean against the dumbell rack so the dumbell hangs down a little in front of me.

Then I would simply tighten my grip a pull it up tight. Very, very little movement. My arm size and strength blew up in very short time. So, I made my own adjustable kettlebell with plumbing parts. In fact it kind of resembles the hammer strength thingy you advertise. Just has no moveable parts. I can probably send a pic if you need. It looked like a handle with a pipe hanging down.

You would load the pipe with weight then squeeze the handle. I have had the same issue. I have done three different things, and I have to say that the third one is giving me the most gains. Usually, when I ask for help, I do get the questions, and then I simply refer them to this site. Remember your form, I like to use the Scott curl bench for this. For me this has been a great change for my biceps. My endurance has increased and I notice too, that my tolerance for heavier weights with the straight bar has gotten better too.

Thanks Rob, Sorry for the misunderstanding but I was referring more to the triceps close grip bench press. And, yes, I do also like power factor training but still can go heavy enough that I would prefer some sort of safety device like the power rack. There is no one to ask for help, I work out in my own gym at odd hours.

I use it to great comfort for my wrists. FYI, they also make a shrug bar and Gripper machine. Should have it ready in a few days. I am pretty good at the mile: My question is this. When does everyone work out at the gym? This question is preventing me from doing this workout.

Try some Beta workouts. I got your PFW. I understand the Alpha training, but in Beta training do you just not increase weight but just increase duration?

So the entire excersize for each muscle is just like one really long set?? Hey KC, I work out at night, but I am a night owl and I have always enjoyed training in the wee hours.

I know that some guys on here work out in the afternoon and evening and have either come to enjoy the stares or learned to ignore them. Just experiment and find a time that works best for you. You can get stronger in Alpha strength and you measure that with the Power Factor. You can get stronger in Beta strength and you measure that with the Power Index.

Perhaps you can go to your gym at some different times, and figure out when the quiet period is and train then. I had to wait for someone to finish on the power-rack yesterday, then I was effectively hogging it for a while chest and lower back. Like I said, no other training or exertion so my body is purely resting. So my scores went way down, because the 40rep effort sucked — maybe I was struggling too much with the kg weight it kinda felt heavy!

So should I drop it down to kg or 90kg and focus on getting the reps up higher? I love this workout, buying your book was a great investment! When I go home at night after one of these workouts, I am so drained that I actually have to take a nap and also go to bed early lol! Is it better to work this program alone, or with a partner?

But I did want to know if a partner was good, or not. Other than the leg press, most people use about the same weight as the steroid monsters who train at the gym all day every day. OK…then I do feel better. I like it when my short sleeve tees are tight around the arm. I like the comments about my chest. So which program would build me the quickest and the biggest without killing me??

But hate to be sore after a workout. The three days of dreading to sit or stand just are not fun. And honestly Pete, how long does it take to really learn this system.

I also hear about timing and reps. How do you do this part? With a stop watch, or what? Or should I just buy the book and find out?? And let us know how you do. Try the Train Smart workout — less wear and tear and soreness. Hi Pete When using a smith machine that does not have the saftey stop things on, is there anyway to improvise saftey stops so that if you lift more than you can re rack on a static contraction lift it wont all come falling down on you? You Might have misunderstood me, it has the saftey catches all the way up that the bar rests on but it doesnt have those saftey stop things that you can adjust so that the bar cannot pass a certain point.

Sorry for being unclear do you see what I mean though now. But serious, why would anyone want to train to get old wear and tear , when we can get younger? Anyhow, I waited 10 days between workouts and felt the last workout was really heavy. I added 2 days and the workout yesterday was lesser heavy. Can I say that? I really felt strong and gained in every exercise! I want to let people know about SCT, how good it really works.

When i think back, just months ago I really thought I never would train, ever, like I really hated training overall traditional weighttraining, Yuck!

To all who hesitate, just do it and feel it for yourselves! Nothing to lose, except your excessive fat! The smith machines at my gym do have the safety stops and I make sure they are set prior to lifting anything!

I mainly train on Saturdays anytime between 1: Most gyms are not that busy at that time. I do have a workout partner, but when I am on my own I pretty much have the run of the place. Plus, you will get to a point quickly where you are working out strength training less and less. I gained every time so far. Take more time off. Many advanced trainees go weeks between workouts.

Your muscle will not evaporate, believe me. Will I still be increasing my speed by doing this workout like I was with the alpha workout? Plus, am I right in saying if you continually try to increase the weight while at the very least doing the same amount of reps you are still going to be increasing alpha strength as well?

Beta workouts are for endurance. Your peak speed might increase but your endurance is sure to. Life is full of trade-offs. You can run fast or you can run a long time, but. Which workout will help performance on a soccer pitch the most in your opinion Pete, the beta or the alpha workout?

Or maybe I could do a 5 sec hold and then do beta reps for 2 minutes like someone else suggested? Brian I have found that the torque that you generate from muscle due to alpha workouts is most useful in the midfield where you are always trying to win the ball and distribute. Especially, the outside mid who recieves a ball in isolation, pushes a ball in to space and then explodes in to that space, as is often the case, the alpha is the better workout.

A striker may benefit better from a beta workout but there too a striker can benefit from the alpha workout that strengthens and stoutly stabilizes quads, calves, hips, feet in challenges on a well placed ball in the open field. I like the stability and torque that you get from an alpha. Besides soccer is all about letting the ball do the beta workout. Sounds like good advice.

I just build the muscles. But just know that the balance and ability to keep your hips over the ball in a challenge will be greatly enhanced by alpha workouts. As an ex defender a word of caution when going past a player, put as much space as possible between yourself and the defender to reduce the risk of being tripped up, When in a tight situation I find myself slowing down these days just due to self presevation,I just dont fancy hitting the astro turf at full speed.

Try a 45 degree incline and see if it hurts your shoulders. I found the power rack so thats one problem solved!!! I transfered the workout I do on the xf machine to the real gym with real weights for a change and found it harder work plus im feeling aching and stiffnes which I dont feel after using the xf! Any comments or reasons why please?

The new gym does not have barbells-only machines and dumbles up to 80lbs. I do all my lifting on the machines but cannot do the deadlift and shrugs. I did use the 80lbs dumbells but these are now far too light and just wondered whether you had a solution? Would alternating and balancing on one leg and lifting have the same effect?

Also, I used the Verticle Row machine for the bench press so will this give me the same results as the BB bench press?

Kindly let me know and many thanks in advance. I always remind people that most gyms have a visitor rate that will let you pay a few bucks and get access to the good stuff. Doing lifts with one leg on the ground is inviting injury.

However, here are some ways to cheat machines: The graphs on the spreadsheet show big improvements. But today, an extra 5kg of strength, awesome. So I meant to try kg for the peak, but I counted up the weights on the bar incorrectly! The peak was really tough! I failed to get it off the power-rack bars about 3 times, and then on the 4th try I got it up.

And as for the PFT results, this is absolutely fantastic, continued improvement over time. A summary so you can see the improvements: On this article about the genetics between the 2 models that you commented on,that no matter what the guy on the right does he will never be as the guy on the left. I also agree,being a hardgainer type I am more towards the guy on the right than the left.

In your power factor training,could I do a little better in mass gains than doing what I am doing now on the train smart routine-beta style? As your chart showed for hardgainers. The power factor article you wrote on had shown to my understanding that PFT looked to be more effective for muscle gains than strength gains,or should I continue watching my numbers.

If that is the case I would rather do a little more volume and see more mass than strength. If that being the case I would order the PFT e-book. Please let me know what you think about this,and thanks again for your time and help….

In general, if you are a person who does well with higher volume workouts then the PF routine is preferred. When people find it hard to gain muscle with quick, efficient workouts I steer them toward PF because it not only provides more volume it also gives you two ways to measure your intensity and that keeps you on track workout after workout.

On the topic of size vs strength they are directly related — as a muscle gets stronger it gets bigger and vice versa. The real issue is to make measurable progress every workout. I started out with these numbers: Workout B Lats one arm, easier to do for some reason Chest lbs Deadlift lbs Calves lbs both legs Quads lbs one leg!

You have to try out the exercises which they are shown and some of them you need to adjust to your own physique, cause their can be some difference in where your static hold generates most intensity. One more tip, 1toonhooks and the pads from newgrip is awesome, and at very low cost in my opinion. Both at this page: Thanks for posting, Rene. I continue to see the same pattern here.

People get better at holding heavier weights but they fail to build much muscle or improve their bodies very much. That was my result too and I believe I finally know why……… When one uses a heavier weight during a partial movement the actual resistance on the muscle is less not greater due to the mechanical advantage of the strong range limited range of motion.

The weight used is not as important as the resistance which means weight and leverage. A heavier weight in a smaller range of motion is less effective because you only use the strongest part of the movement.

That is why I increased the weight in all of my exercises but looked no better after months of hard training with much heavier poundages. My log book looked great, the numbers were much heavier but I failed to build much visible muscle. I read similiar stories here often.

So, if you want to keep measuring your progress by holding heavier and heavier weights this is the program for you but I do not think it will ever build an impressive physique. Is it possible, just possible, you and some others did something wrong in your training that prevented your muscle growth?

I can see results on my body, tightened and I definitely see it on my arms 13 inch to I can see my chest is also growing slowly, and my legs. Some people have the advantage of having a physique genetics? My chest opened-a-can of whoopass after 20 days of rest with to lbs! I found my rythm and are doing things right. An inch on each bicep last time I measured. I eat a good amount of calories and lots of protein so maybe the answer lies in diet? The funny thing is my muscles are growing in size but I could care less.

I am a solid pounds and am happy with my build for the most part. I just want to get stronger. I have never experienced consistent gains like this and I love it. Also, I wonder if some trainees are comparing their muscular development to those that are using heavy dosages of anabolic steroids. The majority of individuals you see on the infomercials or in the muscle mags are juicing. Heck most of the guys in your local gym are juicing. I think people have to get their minds wrapped around the fact that there are no shortcuts when it comes to putting on muscle safely.

Even top bodybuilders, loaded to the gills with steroids AND blessed with great genetics, take years to get to that level of freaky development. For me personally, if I am making steady gains I am satisfied.

Do you have any videos on proper form? Did you get enough rest between workouts? Are you sure all your numbers increase? How many months did you try SCT? How was your diet? For example, it could be that they are doing something wrong. Its like learning how to drive a car. Of course, congrats on the higher lifts and your progress there.

You did not mention whether you were lean or had any weight to lose. There are so many factors when you are trying to change your physique such as metabolism, body fat level, lifestyle, age, ilness, stress, even food intake I know Pete has mixed feelings on this one…wink. I would advise you give a little more detail to the guys so they can make the appropriate recommendation.

Either way, stay educated on what really makes the body change. There are a lot lies, mistruths, and just plain bullshit to sell programs. These guys took the time and tested everything. I seldom find that in other training programs. Keep the faith and stay with it. Increasing your muscle mass and increasing your regulation bench press are two different goals. You have to decide where your priorities are. If you want a maximum regulation bench press then you have to practice that frequently.

The biggest, most muscular man in the gym was on the next bench over doing multiple sets with He looked much better than I ever will. He was using much lighter poundages on all his exercises and he looked like he could win any state level competition. I looked like a husky guy who could have played football a few years back. I did my curls with He used 35 pound dumbells and his arms were bigger, and more defined than mine.

I concluded that holding heavy weights must not be the answer. How did he get so impressive using such light weights? Last year my 8th grader asked me what exercises he needed to do to get better in football. I answered, workout ALL the muscles you will use, the way you will use them. I asked, for how long an exertion period.

He did some research, and it was less than 10 seconds. The best way for you to find out is to take out single foods for a couple of days and see if there will be any difference. If your body is toxic you may have a hard time digesting healthier foods. Some of these healthier raw foods are harder to digest. Make sure your food is organic less chemicals less toxins. Try doing a smoothly each day.

Smoothies are easier to digest. Also try steaming some of your vegetables in the beginning of you diet change. You may be allergic to some of the foods you are eating too. You really should be doing this under the supervision of a wholistic health care professional that can help trouble shoot some of these issues.

Changing your diet is only a small part of what you need to be doing to improve your health. Eeek…I know you are trying to help but the things you are saying are so cringe-inducing. I think you should study more before you start giving out advice. You use of the word toxins is worrisome. Spend some time at http: Talk to a board certified pediatrician and ask them what they would do for an infant. Next follow the recommendations because I am pretty sure it will not involve big pharma. They usually advise the BRAT diet to calm the lining of the gut.

Next get tested for food allergies. When you have calmed your gut and determined you are your own worst enemy, eat a balanced intake of the basic food groups except anything you are allergic to forever.

Stop seeking advice and self diagnosing from what sensationalism is published on line and follow the rules for you and your gut. While drinking gallons of that water. Yes, science progresses but some ideas were Bad science to begin with: No one should be taking them.

Always question when someone has something to sell. If you are gagging trying to drink down a glass of water, Hint: Stop the insanity and listen to your own body, and not to what advertisers tell you. I asked a PhD, a scientist from Princeton U. Luckily, my common sense told me they are useless.

Thanks James for your insights. So if I my body gets used to a higher suga rlevel and demand more and more sugar. Your health will to survive will make you crave water. Craving sugar and coffee is an addictive response.

Not the same type of message from the body. For the most part though, listening to your body is the best idea, such as thirst, hunger, intuition, need for sleep. If your body tells you it wants a donut abd some vodka, well then not so much.

Nicely said Trish — thank you for the reminder and the perspective. I agree that we should beware of unnecessary prescriptions, be aware of and honest about our lifestyle choices, and strive to make positive changes, before beginning medications. I wold have to see what you are referring to. That does not sound like my writing as I have talked about the benefits of cholesterol numerous times and the side effects of low cholesterol, which include a significantly increased risk of heart attack and stroke.

I have also discussed the dangers of statin drugs for cholesterol numerous times, which includes increased risk of heart failure. There could be some confusion because I am not the only one that is posting on the comments under the name James. So much misinformation here. First of all bone is one of the three buffer systems of the body. As it turns out heavy metals and fluroide. I found one study that showed a 15x increase in the excretion of fluoride with an alkaline urine vs acidic.

Alkaline urine increases the excretion of lead and urainium, and possibly increases the uptake of aluminum. These are hardly small effects. Bo J, may I have links to the studies you mentioned relating to alkaline urine excretion? Heres an example of the effect of urinary PH on amphetamine excretion.. Its a small study.. So, yeah… when your kidney stop working, they you should worry about acidosis….

This is what sometimes happens to ultramarathoners, and can happen to people with high fever and a few other problems look up rhabdomyolysis.

Myoglobin from muscles breaks down and at a low enough PH the iron disassociates and causes hydroxyl radicals to form. No surprise that urinary PH was found to both predict the likelyhood and speed of kidney failure in diabetics. Ultramarathoners are putting a lot more stress on the kidneys simply from the fact that a lot more blood is being forced through the kidneys to begin with.

On top of that the cells being damaged and destroyed can lead to an increased uric acid load, which is not the same as acidosis, and top that off with some dehydration and yes kidney damage can occur. Again proof this is linked to acidosis? There are several reasons a high fever and kidney dysfunction can be associated such as meds given to lower a fever or the fever from a urinary tract infection to name a few.

Excess myoglobin from rhabdomyolosis can cause kidney damage from things like renal tubular obstruction or decreased kidney blood flow. So once again you need to back up your claims with some real evidence.

So if the pH has to be low enough then what is causing that low pH? Maybe pre-existing kidney failure? Secondly they are talking about extreme metabolic acidosis. Are you even aware of how rare metabolic acidosis is? And how even more rare extreme metabolic acidosis is? So rare that most doctors will not see a case of this in their entire careers.

Furthermore, buffering by the bones is only used as a very last resort, which is why it is only seen in extreme cases of metabolic acidosis. Actually the pH of the urine is dependent in large part on what is being excreted through the kidneys. The other factor is bacteria. The bacteria that cause urinary tract infections secrete urease to form ammonia, which alkalizes the urine.

One problem with the hypothesis is that they are simply measuring the urine pH. What if the urinary pH itself is the result of the drug? Some drugs are known for altering urine pH. And things like fluoride could have a higher solubility and elimination simply from the other compounds they introduced to alter the pH of the urine.

For example, it is well known that sodium increases the solubility of uric acid. Potassium to an even greater extent. Ive been following this back and forth with a small amount of interest for some time now. How could you not see the disingenuous nature of such a thing?

I have a rare condition, and we keep the FB site on this condition for those that have it and for parents of children who have it. We never get phrma companies popping up with ads, but we get natural ones all the time.

When indeed the only way they can do this is saying they have the condition or having a child that does. Then they will be invited in and all of a sudden ads for natural products appear.

It has been a lesson for me. People are quick to nail drug companies yet not one has done this…. Ted Hutchinson tell me one thing where in links you provided is statment about diet which cause chagne in blood ph?. Wow do you even understand what you reference? You provide us epidemiological studies where correlation dont imply causation?

If you like epidemiological studies look maybe at most healthiest nations? About second reference osteoporosis Chriss describe this so I dont think need do the same read his reference and then you will see flaws in study provided by you. It is by no means intended as professional medical advice. Do not use any of the agents or freely available dietary supplements mentioned on this website without further consultation with your medical practitioner.

Pls read one more time this articles I argue with authors of this site and he completly dont understand how body ph regulation work he forgot about most basic knowledge like correlation dont imply causation. S About more info read my second comment to Ted. Interesting and passionate thread. I know a few individuals and even a few nutritional consultants swear by alkaline water, having experienced some amazing results.

So, I was curious to read what James had to say. I found his explanation helpful since I did have my doubts. Alkaline water is water with high levels of alkaline minerals dissolved in the water. High pH water means a higher than normal level of hydrogen ions. This may be caused by alkaline minerals, by electrolysis, or by reaction of water and magnesium. Alkaline water is a way of adding to your alkaline buffer or storehouse.

This buffer is used as first resort when excess acid is taken up in food or beverages. Molecular Hydrogen infused water. This water comes from either an electronic water ionizer or a magnesium based water filter. H2 is infused into the water, which gives it a high pH reading. However there is now a fourth type of water. Low pH High H2 water This uses a differently technology to infuse H2 into filtered water, but does not affect the pH or alkalinity of the water.

My declaration of interest is that we designed and invented the first all-in-one water filter and hydrogen infusion system. Alkaline water can be naturally alkaline or made alkaline artificially and there can be major differences. Naturally alkaline water is made alkaline primarily from carbonates in the water such as magnesium and calcium carbonates. Artificially produced alkaline water can be made alkaline with the addition of carbonates or as in the case of ionized alkaline water by the production of caustic mineral metal hydroxides.

The mineral hydroxides are especially dangerous as they not only neutralize stomach acid, which can lead to all sorts of health issues, but there is also the caustic nature of the hydroxides that can damage tissues and the fact that the hydroxides can dissociate forming the hydroxyl radical linked to cancer formation among other issues.

Look at it this way. Would you add Red Devil Lye or Drano to your water to alkalize it? But these are some of the same caustic mineral hydroxides formed by water ionizers.

No it does not. When water is made alkaline from naturally occurring carbonates or from hydroxyl ions this is not the same as hydrogen ions, nor do they prove an increase in hydrogen ions.

Here is a link that will explain it to you:. High pH water IS alkaline water. And both acidic and alkaline solutions can be buffered so your statement is ridiculous. Again, virtually all pH regulation is maintained by respiration followed by hydrogen ion retention to increase acidity or elimination to increase alkalinity by the kidneys. Neither of these involve any type of alkaline reserve. If you ingest a food that contains acids the food will simply become more acidic in the stomach along with foods or drinks having an alkaline pH.

Then as the chyme food, drinks, stomach acid and enzymes leave the stomach the pancreas releases bicarbonate that then neutralizes the acids in the chyme. In the long run all foods get metabolized in to acids, which again are kept in check by respiration and kidney function except in rare circumstances.

Since truly pure water has a pH of 7 neutral and alkaline water has a high pH over 7 then how can the pH or alkalinity NOT be affected as you claim if the water has a low acidic pH, which is the opposite of alkaline and a pH below neutral? Again your comments are contradicting themselves. That was just bogus sales hype. In fact, the ionized alkaline water contains caustic mineral metal hydroxides that dissociate in to the powerful free radical known as the hydroxyl radical associated with the formation of cancer and other diseases.

One constant in this thread has been just one aggressive man sans the ability to express himself without denigrating others. Of course, my friend! No need to split hairs on this one. Bottom line; alkaline water is any water with alkaline minerals in any form. Ionized water as it is referred to in the industry is water with some alkaline minerals that passes through a process of electrolysis. If there are no alkaline minerals in the input water electrolysis is not possible. There is a long held idea in some quarters that minerals are added to cause alkalinization.

This is simply not true of all mainstream electronic water ionizers. Exactly WHAT mineral hydroxides are you referring to? I ask because after 16 years supplying water ionizers both electric and natural, I have never seen anyone attribute stomach problems to this form of water.

That would be a sample of at least 10, customers. And please also give us links to the scientific studies you use to back up your assertion. Here is a link that will explain it to you: James, I assume you are referring to this statement in the link you provided.. Actually, it is determined by the concentration of hydrogen ions, the percentage of hydrogen ions contained in the solution. We appear to be arguing over nomenclature rather than physical characteristics. All I am saying is that general usage often mistakes alkalinity and high pH.

But we can have high pH water with low alkaline minerals, as in a water ionizer where electrolysis created higher levels of hydrogen ions aka H2. Water containing alkaline minerals is referred to as a buffered solution. A buffering agent can be either a weak acid or weak base. Buffering agents are usually added to water to form a buffer solution, which only slightly changes its pH in response to other acids and bases being combined with it, particularly a strong acid or a strong base.

Respiration is certainly the most important buffering system as it converts carbonic acids to CO2. The real digestion as such begins in the intestine, after alkaline pancreatic fluid is injected into the food by the pancreas.

James, I agree that in the long run all foods get metabolised into acids mainly amino acids, but what does that have to do with the pH of the original food?

If you are correct, then there should be no beneficial effect from calcium supplements or magnesium supplements. UC has done some great work on this. Go back and read the link again I posted for you. I did read it, James. Perhaps they do contradict themselves to you James. I can easily produce neutral pH water with high H2 levels. The unit that does this is here in our lab. I use a combination of electrolysis and RO. Agree that that alkalinity although shown to be beneficial to health in a large scale metastudy of drinking water worldwide available from me and ORP are not proof of antioxidant effect.

I also agree that thousands of MLM independent distributors were told that alkalinity and ORP were the antioxidant effect. Totally on the same page, James.

Still, I have no proof either scientific or empirical of your claim of the damage caused by hydroxyl ions. Whatever you make of it James. Sad indeed that you need to see everyone here as your enemy.

You make a good contribution ad spend many hours on it. You still have not developed the intelligence to realize that I AM NOT the topic even after this fact has been explained to you.

And you still continue with the bogus personal insults in a poor attempt to divert attention away from your lack of intelligence, which I will further prove in this response. Electrolysis of water can be done with the addition of any electrolyte. This can include acidic minerals, colloidal metals, acids, etc.

Minerals are sold by some water ionizer companies to add to water. Especially if the water being used has been purified of minerals first since as already pointed out some type of electrolyte must be present. More proof of how clueless you really are. What do you think makes the water alkaline?

If the water is also full of alkaline minerals to allow electrolysis as you falsely claim then why would electrolysis be needed at all? After all the water would already be alkaline from the presence of the alkaline minerals already in the water that you claim need to be present!!!

As we can see there is a positively changed hydrogen H combined to the negatively charged hydroxyl group OH. As we know opposite charges attract with this why the positively charged H binds to the negatively charged OH.

When the water is split with an electrical process known as electrolysis the positively charged H is separated from the negatively charged OH. But these unpaired charges are going to seek out opposite charges to balance themselves. The OH again is negatively charged and thus needs to find something positively charged to balance.

Where does that positive charge come from? The metals of the minerals in the water. For example the positively charged sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium in the water. I see you deliberately left the link off and stopped short on the quote to make it incorrectly appear that you know what you are talking about. So what was the rest of that quote that you fell short on quoting?

As you know, the formula for water is H2O. Most of the molecules in water are in that extremely stable form we know as H2O. When the hydrogen ions outnumber the hydroxide ions, the solution is acidic. If the reverse is true, then the solution is alkaline. So why did you purposely leave out the rest of that quote? Another attempt to mislead people The discussion was about pH, not alkalinity. Note that there is no mention of bases.

So what James Drever said is irrelevant to what was said and is just another desperate attempt to hide your most recent error. How do you come up with that. Go back the link I posted for you again. It explains what pH actually is. Again go back and read the link I posted for you. It will explain pH to you. Hydrogen ions create acidity. By the way, H2 is not a hydrogen ion either, it is a hydrogen molecule. So once again you are proving that you have no clue what you are talking about.

Correct because as I said you can use other electrolytes, such as acids, to produce the alkaline hydroxides. So once again you are wrong. Furthermore, minerals are best absorbed when acidified. So alkalizing the minerals would simply make them harder to absorb.

Look up the research for example of why alkaline calcium carbonate or alkaline magnesium oxide are so poorly absorbed compared to the acidified forms such as the malates and citrates. Again, the caustic mineral hydroxides are neutralized by the stomach acid forming salts. The stomach acid is also neutralized in the process leading to a long list of health problems that will develop from infection from ingested pathogens to decreased methylation.

These problems include cancer, heart disease, arthritis, suppressed immunity, hormone disorders, neurotransmitter imbalances, deceased cellular energy production, etc. Since methylation that is inhibited by the ionized alkaline water is also dependent on methyl groups for production the inhibited production of more stomach acid will simply further increase the risk of these problems.

Once again you are not only wrong, but you clearly do not understand the digestive or buffering systems of the body. I already explained how digestion works. I wish you would get out more out of this blog, that is. Different parts of the body are designed to have different pH levels.

When talking about alkalinity and health this is really referring to blood pH, which is tightly maintained by respiration and kidney function, not diet. It does not matter what you eat, you are not going to change your pH since pH is not regulated by diet.

James et al, I have a problem I hope you can help. I have had 3 kidney stones in the last month. I noticed my urine pH runs on the low side of normal, between 5 and 6 I bought a pH meter and have been analyzing a few times a day. I know crystal formation is very sensitive to pH so I want to raise my urine pH about one unit, to between 6 and 7. What are the options for raising urine pH?

I thought drinking alkaline water might work but after reading the comments posted here I doubt it. I read taking potassium citrate would raise urine pH but I went to CVS and the pharmacist said it was prescription only.

If I get an Rx for potassium citrate do you think it will raise urine pH much? Other ideas on how to raise urine pH as much as one unit? Any suggestions would be appreciated. I think raising your ph will make it even worse. Antacids are a gallstone culprit, and they push your ph up. It would help a lot to know what kind of stones you are passing.

Some form in more acidic urine and some in more alkaline urine. In general though I like nettle leaf and magnesium malate for the two most common forms of kidney stones which are uric acid stones and calcium oxalate stones. Both dissolve both forms of stones. Check out this website, it actually has a liquid ionic mineral complex that is suspended extracted from volcanic rocks in sulfuric acid an water, hence it is charged, and has an alkalizing effect on the body.

There is a testimonial by a Canadian DC who his staff member passed kidney stones with no pain they dissolved , using these minerals. I know these minerals are successful at decalcification, and they also purify water from several toxins, chemicals, bacteria etc, hence they are effective on dissolution of kidney stones. Scroll down to the first video testimonial: I started taking sodium bicarbonate, and I peed tiny crystals for a week.

Sodium bicarb is probably the cheapest way to raise it. Just drink plenty of water! I had a huge stone removed from my ureter tube many years ago. My specialist told me to drink at least 2 litres of water a day. I had the stone risk assessment done and it did not indicate that low urine volume was an issue. It showed high uric acid, confirming the low urine pH issue. Plus there are times when you lose more water than you can drink sweating on a hot humid day in FL, like today.

Coming up on a year with no stones. I live in between the Philippines and Australia Darwin. The climate in both Subic Bay and Darwin is extremely hot and humid.

I drink an average of 4 litres a day in the hottest months. Yes I have to urinate at least 3 times during the night and I drink more water before I go back to sleep. However, I have not had a problem for 30 years so drinking lots of water is working.

Could you explain to me then how a persons sweat can bleach the sheets they are sleeping on and the female secretions burn the skin of the male? I like it very much. If i do not get the flu vaccine I typically get much sicker when the flu season comes around. Its basically a preservative that has mercury in it. My wife has been cured of near death mental illness 4 month long hospitalizations by prayer Gods wisdom not ours , correcting thyroid issues without medical help because Doctors today do not treat based on symptoms as they did years ago, they rely on insufficient testing protocol and are nearly killing people with insufficient treatment, or improper treatment ie.

Four to be specific. Vaginal contraceptives Thimerosal 3. Vaccines Thimerosal and 4. I said all this about Mercury because I agree that we should not be taking vaccines because of it but I have never come by the opinion that vaccines are not proven.

This guy brings up out of context pieces that make his claims appear valid. Until you give your body days to see how it responds to upping the alkaline percentage of your diet, everything is just speculation.

Increased size, frequency and ease of regular bowl movements. Relief from most gastrointestinal symptoms If any were present Weight loss Stabilized, normal blood sugar levels Deceased bad cholesterol Increased good cholesterol Lower triglycerides Lower blood pressure Higher and more consistent energy levels Increased mental clarity.

The list goes on. Some tell stories of their experiences. You deserve to find out for yourself. He is on to something about the vaccines.

They have NOT ever been proven safe or effective. Even if people use 3rd grade level words this still will not change the facts. Did you ever stop and think though about your own wording you have been spouting off from the Kangen sales propaganda that were so far over your head?

Such as ORP oxidation reduction potential that you did not know what it meant. Again I already addressed this sales propaganda. Supply the research then if it exists. Again show us the evidence that this diet alkalizes interstitial fluid. Anyone can make bogus claims, we want to see the evidence. Which has nothing to do with a change in interstitial pH as you claim. The diet is higher in fibers that help increase size, frequency and ease of bowel movements due to increased bulk, and stimulating the intestine duet to abrasive irritation, increased serotonin production from the flora feeding on the fibers and the beneficial acids formed from the fermentation of the fiber.

The increased fiber again helps prevent constipation and maintains the normal acidity of the colon that helps with nutrient absorption and controlling of pathogens. The higher level of ascorbic acid and pantothenic acid also help support the adrenal glands that among other things will help reduce inflammation in the body including intestinal inflammation, which also reduces leaky gut.

Weight loss is aided by the laxative effect of the fiber as well as the fact that fiber slows down blood sugar absorption preventing insulin spikes that increase weight. In addition, the higher level of ascorbic acid and pantothenic acid support the adrenal glands preventing cortisol spikes that also lead to fat deposits.

The diet is also higher in nutrients such as magnesium, chromium and vanadium that help with blood sugar regulation and B vitamins that help with metabolism. Already explained why above. Sterols in plants bind cholesterol from food and from bile in the intestine forming an insoluble complex to prevent absorption or reabsorption thus lowering cholesterol.

Triglycerides are lowered due to the balanced blood sugar levels since long term elevated blood sugar increases triglycerides.

Sterols and the higher magnesium intake both help relax blood vessels lowering blood pressure. Which have nothing to do with a change in interstitial pH as you claim. Higher and more consistent energy levels are from better adrenal function, higher B vitamins, better blood sugar control, etc. Increased mental clarity from increased blood flow to the brain from sterols and magnesium in particular improving blood flow. Acidosis is hardly rare, in fact its a common complication of diabetes.

Ah l am not so sure about this except to say in life if you eat a balanced diet its supposed to be beneficial. To say either way on this topic would be wrong as many who have advocated for things in the past have been right and many medically proven concepts have been wrong.

Well my problem is that ben there and done that so l actually went on a higher protein eating binge for the last 12 weeks. The topic is the myth that diet can alter your blood pH. Blood pH is not regulated by diet.

It is regulated almost entirely through respiration followed by hydrogen ion retention or elimination of hydrogen ions. The benefits of the so-called alkaline diet comes primarily from the high nutritional level. The removal of caffeine products such as coffee also help reduce inflammation by reducing stress on the adrenal glands.

Of course you can change your blood PH by drinking enough of anything acidic enough or basic enough and yes there have been studies on this. Blood PH is a red herring because it HAS to be in a tight PH range in order for hemoglobin to work just like in your car your engine needs to be in a specific range, while your trunk temp doesnt matter much.

Everyone quotes blood PH, while intracellular PH varies more 6. The average person breathes out acid CO2 , urinates acid, sweats acid, and while feces are usually alkaline they are generally less alkaline than the blood. So if everything we are giving out is usually acidic, is it really so hard to believe that we just might surpass our ability to excrete acid, and that a subclinical acidosis is the result?.

If you have a chemist talk about the PH buffer systems of the human body it is clear that system is greatly adjusted to resist acid loads, not basic loads for example in blood the ratio of bicarbonate to carbonic acid.

Also look at animals read up on cows and acidosis and tell me its just something that does not happen. As to vaccines… I also grew up in the era when polio was still considered to be the scourge. What is interest to note though is that the incident rate for polio was on a significant steady decline BEFORE the salk vaccine. Also, the salk vaccine introduce the virus SV to all of the people receiving the salk vaccine. SV is one of the viruses that has the potential to produce cancer.

In fact, as of a few years ago, no animal injected with the SV failed to have a significant increase in the cancer incident rate. Incidentally, the sabin vaccine, while also having the SV virus probably did not infect people with the virus as ingestion has proven to be pretty good at killing the virus.

There is plenty of evidence and research to suggest that there are plenty of problems with vaccines, strenuously denied by the pharmaceutical industry and the CDC. As to the flu vaccine, research show that the vaccine usually turns the recipient into a carrier think Typhoid Mary for a few weeks and is rarely effective they are guessing what flu strain will be the problem.

Anecdotal of course, but my personal reaction to the flu vaccine is to become bedridden. The Navy even marked my medical records to NOT be given the flu shot. Go to the Philippines and you will see first hand the results of unchecked polio! James, I want to thank you for convincing me that as a blogger I do not have the expertise to write on most health subjects.

Hence, I will stick to what I do know. A bit of advice though James, tone down your attitude. Nice goes a long, long way to getting people to listen to you.

I now have a headache just trying to read all of the information posted to this thread. Another clue that I am not an expert You very well may be an expert and I have learned a thing or two from your articles, at least the ones I could actually get through, but again, in order for people to listen to you, you must be more than an expert.

You must be likable and I do not feel that you are. Of course that is just my opinion but I think a lot of people agree with me. AND, I am entitled to my opinion. I also want to point out the scientific studies are not the begin and end all as many times they are flawed or misinterpreted. I am not saying the ones you cite are, as I do not know because I did not view a single one.

I just know that studies are often guilty of not using the proper basis for comparison when performing them so the results are not always what is claimed. The fact you learned a thing or two from him but then in the next breath chide him about his technical knowledge makes YOU unlikeable to people.

Yes, you are entitled to your opinion, but it is no defense for the fact that people like you act like children and remain recalcitrant over changing your beliefs. However, the orally available forms of AAS may cause liver damage in high doses.

Known possible side effects of AAS include: Depending on the length of drug abuse, there is a chance that the immune system can be damaged. Most of these side-effects are dose-dependent, the most common being elevated blood pressure , especially in those with pre-existing hypertension.

AAS have been shown to alter fasting blood sugar and glucose tolerance tests. A number of severe side effects can occur if adolescents use AAS. For example, AAS may prematurely stop the lengthening of bones premature epiphyseal fusion through increased levels of estrogen metabolites , resulting in stunted growth. Other effects include, but are not limited to, accelerated bone maturation , increased frequency and duration of erections, and premature sexual development.

AAS use in adolescence is also correlated with poorer attitudes related to health. Probably carcinogenic to humans. Other side-effects can include alterations in the structure of the heart , such as enlargement and thickening of the left ventricle , which impairs its contraction and relaxation , and therefore reducing ejected blood volume.

AAS use can cause harmful changes in cholesterol levels: AAS use in adolescents quickens bone maturation and may reduce adult height in high doses. There are also sex-specific side effects of AAS.

Development of breast tissue in males, a condition called gynecomastia which is usually caused by high levels of circulating estradiol , may arise because of increased conversion of testosterone to estradiol by the enzyme aromatase. This side-effect is temporary; the size of the testicles usually returns to normal within a few weeks of discontinuing AAS use as normal production of sperm resumes.

Female-specific side effects include increases in body hair , permanent deepening of the voice, enlarged clitoris , and temporary decreases in menstrual cycles.

Alteration of fertility and ovarian cysts can also occur in females. Kidney tests revealed that nine of the ten steroid users developed a condition called focal segmental glomerulosclerosis , a type of scarring within the kidneys. The kidney damage in the bodybuilders has similarities to that seen in morbidly obese patients, but appears to be even more severe. High doses of oral AAS compounds can cause liver damage.

A review in CNS Drugs determined that "significant psychiatric symptoms including aggression and violence, mania , and less frequently psychosis and suicide have been associated with steroid abuse. Long-term steroid abusers may develop symptoms of dependence and withdrawal on discontinuation of AAS".

Recreational AAS use appears to be associated with a range of potentially prolonged psychiatric effects, including dependence syndromes, mood disorders , and progression to other forms of substance abuse, but the prevalence and severity of these various effects remains poorly understood.

Large-scale long-term studies of psychiatric effects on AAS users are not currently available. DSM-IV lists General diagnostic criteria for a personality disorder guideline that "The pattern must not be better accounted for as a manifestation of another mental disorder, or to the direct physiological effects of a substance e.

As a result, AAS users may get misdiagnosed by a psychiatrist not told about their habit. Affective disorders have long been recognised as a complication of AAS use. From the mids onward, the media reported "roid rage" as a side effect of AAS. A review determined that some, but not all, randomized controlled studies have found that AAS use correlates with hypomania and increased aggressiveness, but pointed out that attempts to determine whether AAS use triggers violent behavior have failed, primarily because of high rates of non-participation.

Compared with individuals that did not use steroids, young adult males that used AAS reported greater involvement in violent behaviors even after controlling for the effects of key demographic variables, previous violent behavior, and polydrug use. The drug response was highly variable. The mechanism of these variable reactions could not be explained by demographic, psychological, laboratory, or physiological measures.

A study of two pairs of identical twins, in which one twin used AAS and the other did not, found that in both cases the steroid-using twin exhibited high levels of aggressiveness, hostility, anxiety, and paranoid ideation not found in the "control" twin.

The relationship between AAS use and depression is inconclusive. There have been anecdotal reports of depression and suicide in teenage steroid users, [] but little systematic evidence. A review found that AAS may both relieve and cause depression, and that cessation or diminished use of AAS may also result in depression, but called for additional studies due to disparate data. Androgens such as testosterone , androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone are required for the development of organs in the male reproductive system , including the seminal vesicles , epididymis , vas deferens , penis and prostate.

The pharmacodynamics of AAS are unlike peptide hormones. However, as fat-soluble hormones, AAS are membrane-permeable and influence the nucleus of cells by direct action. The pharmacodynamic action of AAS begin when the exogenous hormone penetrates the membrane of the target cell and binds to an androgen receptor AR located in the cytoplasm of that cell.

From there, the compound hormone-receptor diffuses into the nucleus, where it either alters the expression of genes [] or activates processes that send signals to other parts of the cell.

The effect of AAS on muscle mass is caused in at least two ways: It has been hypothesized that this reduction in muscle breakdown may occur through AAS inhibiting the action of other steroid hormones called glucocorticoids that promote the breakdown of muscles.

As their name suggests, AAS have two different, but overlapping, types of effects: Some examples of the anabolic effects of these hormones are increased protein synthesis from amino acids , increased appetite, increased bone remodeling and growth, and stimulation of bone marrow , which increases the production of red blood cells.

Through a number of mechanisms AAS stimulate the formation of muscle cells and hence cause an increase in the size of skeletal muscles , leading to increased strength. The androgenic effects of AAS are numerous. Depending on the length of use, the side effects of the steroid can be irreversible.

Processes affected include pubertal growth, sebaceous gland oil production, and sexuality especially in fetal development. Some examples of virilizing effects are growth of the clitoris in females and the penis in male children the adult penis size does not change due to steroids [ medical citation needed ] , increased vocal cord size, increased libido , suppression of natural sex hormones , and impaired production of sperm.

Men may develop an enlargement of breast tissue, known as gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, and a reduced sperm count. Compounds with a high ratio of androgenic to an anabolic effects are the drug of choice in androgen-replacement therapy e. This disassociation is less marked in humans, where all AAS have significant androgenic effects.

A commonly used protocol for determining the androgenic: The VP weight is an indicator of the androgenic effect, while the LA weight is an indicator of the anabolic effect. Two or more batches of rats are castrated and given no treatment and respectively some AAS of interest. Animal studies also found that fat mass was reduced, but most studies in humans failed to elucidate significant fat mass decrements. The effects on lean body mass have been shown to be dose-dependent.

Both muscle hypertrophy and the formation of new muscle fibers have been observed. The hydration of lean mass remains unaffected by AAS use, although small increments of blood volume cannot be ruled out.

The upper region of the body thorax, neck, shoulders, and upper arm seems to be more susceptible for AAS than other body regions because of predominance of ARs in the upper body.

After drug withdrawal, the effects fade away slowly, but may persist for more than 6—12 weeks after cessation of AAS use. Overall, the exercise where the most significant improvements were observed is the bench press. The measurement of the dissociation between anabolic and androgenic effects among AAS is based largely on a simple although arguably unsophisticated and outdated model involving rat tissue bioassays.

The intracellular metabolism theory explains how and why remarkable dissociation between anabolic and androgenic effects can occur despite the fact that these effects are mediated through the same signaling receptor, and of course why dissociation is invariably incomplete. An animal study found that two different kinds of androgen response elements could differentially respond to testosterone and DHT upon activation of the AR. Changes in endogenous testosterone levels may also contribute to differences in myotrophic—androgenic ratio between testosterone and synthetic AAS.

Testosterone can be metabolized by aromatase into estradiol , and many other AAS can be metabolized into their corresponding estrogenic metabolites as well. The major effect of estrogenicity is gynecomastia woman-like breasts. AAS are androstane or estrane steroids. As well as others such as 1-dehydrogenation e. The most commonly employed human physiological specimen for detecting AAS usage is urine, although both blood and hair have been investigated for this purpose.

The AAS, whether of endogenous or exogenous origin, are subject to extensive hepatic biotransformation by a variety of enzymatic pathways. The primary urinary metabolites may be detectable for up to 30 days after the last use, depending on the specific agent, dose and route of administration. A number of the drugs have common metabolic pathways, and their excretion profiles may overlap those of the endogenous steroids, making interpretation of testing results a very significant challenge to the analytical chemist.

Methods for detection of the substances or their excretion products in urine specimens usually involve gas chromatography—mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The use of gonadal steroids pre-dates their identification and isolation.

Medical use of testicle extract began in the late 19th century while its effects on strength were still being studied. In the s, it was already known that the testes contain a more powerful androgen than androstenone , and three groups of scientists, funded by competing pharmaceutical companies in the Netherlands, Germany, and Switzerland, raced to isolate it.

The chemical synthesis of testosterone was achieved in August that year, when Butenandt and G. Wettstein, announced a patent application in a paper "On the Artificial Preparation of the Testicular Hormone Testosterone Androstenoneol. Clinical trials on humans, involving either oral doses of methyltestosterone or injections of testosterone propionate , began as early as Kennedy was administered steroids both before and during his presidency.

The development of muscle-building properties of testosterone was pursued in the s, in the Soviet Union and in Eastern Bloc countries such as East Germany, where steroid programs were used to enhance the performance of Olympic and other amateur weight lifters. In response to the success of Russian weightlifters, the U. The new steroid was approved for use in the U. It was most commonly administered to burn victims and the elderly.

The drug's off-label users were mostly bodybuilders and weight lifters. Although Ziegler prescribed only small doses to athletes, he soon discovered that those having abused Dianabol suffered from enlarged prostates and atrophied testes. Three major ideas governed modifications of testosterone into a multitude of AAS: Androgens were discovered in the s and were characterized as having effects described as androgenic i.

Although anabolic steroid was originally intended to specifically describe testosterone-derived steroids with a marked dissociation of anabolic and androgenic effect, it is applied today indiscriminately to all steroids with AR agonism-based anabolic effects regardless of their androgenic potency, including even non-synthetic steroids like testosterone itself. The legal status of AAS varies from country to country: Unlawful distribution or possession with intent to distribute AAS as a first offense is punished by up to ten years in prison.

Those guilty of buying or selling AAS in Canada can be imprisoned for up to 18 months. In Canada, researchers have concluded that steroid use among student athletes is extremely widespread.

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