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If your urine changes color beyond just being more or less concentrated, particularly if you see blood in the urine, you need to see your health-care professional promptly. Journal of Health Psychology. Probably carcinogenic to humans. Pages with reference errors Pages with broken reference names Webarchive template wayback links CS1 German-language sources de Template: The hydration of lean mass remains unaffected by AAS use, although small increments of blood volume cannot be ruled out. This disassociation is less marked in humans, where all AAS have significant androgenic effects.
What is muscular dystrophy?
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Long-term memories seem not to be stored at particular points in the brain, but rather in diffuse associative networks. How are memories created, stored, recalled, and forgotten? How does the brain understand and generate language? How does the brain perform learning and reasoning? What happens in the brain as it makes a decision? How does the brain generate and process emotions? How does the brain control attention? What is the neurophysiological purpose, if any, of sleeping and dreaming?
Evolution is not simply any change in an entity. Individual organisms develop, not evolve. Evolution does not inevitably cause "progress" toward "higher" forms. Evolution can remove features such as eyes and limbs as well as add them. Evolution is not constrained to creating increasing complexity. However, as an ecosystem develops, extremes of complexity can become more likely due to accumulation of complicating changes in some lineages.
Natural selection acts on individual organisms, and not on groups or species of organisms. Natural selection favors variations that increase a genotype's inclusive fitness. Natural selection for maximum inclusive fitness can lead some individuals to forego reproduction in order to help relatives reproduce. It can lead other individuals to compete with parents or siblings, cheat on mates, or commit infanticide against a mate's unrelated offspring.
The methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen sulfide on the early Earth would have been readily combined by lightning, heat, or ultraviolet radiation into organic molecules like amino acids, sugars, and nucleic acids. Clays or other mineral surfaces may have served as catalysts or concentrators for polymerization of these organic molecules.
Nucleotide phosphates could have spontaneously assembled into polynucleotides, which then would be templates for further such assembly. Errors in copying could have led to a population of various replicating polynucleotides. Some polynucleotides could have weakly but selectively bonded with particular amino acids to construct various proteins. Any polynucleotide whose associated protein helped catalyze that polynucleotide's assembly would have preferentially reproduced.
Mutually catalyzing cycles of protein synthesis could have caused the evolution of enzymes. Cells may have arisen as proteinoid microspheres forming spontaneously and helping maintain concentrations of proteins or enzymes which themselves made microsphere formation more likely.
Cell division and reproduction may have developed from the tendency of some microspheres to rupture perhaps after some form of growth into two or more spheres. Natural selection would favor those resulting spheres that retained a complement of nucleic acids, proteins, and enzymes sufficient to continue the sphere's cyclical catalysis, which would at some point be considered the metabolism of a spherical cell.
The earliest bacteria were chemotrophs deriving energy from inorganic chemicals in their environment, but around 3. The earliest first form of photosynthesis split hydrogen sulfide to produce ATP and waste sulfure.
Genetic evidence indicates that many taxa originated earlier than the fossil record suggests. Chimps are more closely related to humans than to gorillas. Similarly, chimps and gorillas are more closely related to humans than to orangutans. Thus the clade Pongidae is paraphyletic. How did Homo sapiens acquire language? This question, too, will likely never have a fully satisfying answer, as the fossil record tells even less about the development of language than it does about the development of intelligence.
Just as sociality was crucial to the evolution of intelligence in animals, it probably also created selective pressure for the development of language skills. A variety of particular factors and stages have been proposed. Production is the transformation of economic resources into goods. Economic resources are any natural resources , human resources, or capital resources that are useful for production. Capital is any product that is has utility for production. Human resources are the labor, skills, and knowledge of persons.
Exchange is the trading of goods for money or for other goods. A market is any mechanism for buyers and sellers to exchange goods. A free market is a market in which buyers and sellers are generally free to decide what to exchange and under what terms. Money is anything generally accepted as a medium of exchange and thus useful for storing or measuring economic value.
The price of a good is the amount of economic value that must be exchanged to acquire it. Demand is willingness and ability to buy. Supply is availability and proffer for sale. The scarcity of a good is the excess of its demand over its supply, and in a free market is measured by price. Consumption is any use of goods that subtracts from wealth without adding to production. Wealth is the economic value of what one owns minus what one owes.
Income is change in net wealth plus the value of goods consumed. Producers and consumers have complete information about the prices and quality of all goods available or demanded in the market.
Markets for particular kinds of goods are not dominated by a relatively few sellers or buyers. Sellers are able to exclude potential buyers from consuming the sellers' goods without buying them. Under perfect competition, markets tend toward equilibrium. Mathematical proof has been given of the theoretical existence of at least one set of prices that will clear all markets simultaneously.
Free trade benefits all parties, even those absolutely more efficient than others. Routine consensual transactions are positive sum, because if either party suffered a loss then she would decline to make the transaction routine. Free markets are the most efficient way to determine the allocation of economic resources and the distribution of goods.
The decentralized mechanism of free market pricing is able to ration goods and resources more efficiently than could any central planning agency. This is because the pricing system transmits information about supply and demand more efficiently than could any planning agency. The pricing system forces economic actors to reveal their demand, and forces firms to supply only what is demanded. Natural resources over time become less costly and thus less scarce. Population growth leads to increased specialization, increased productivity, increased living standards, and a cleaner environment.
Marxism is the belief in the labor theory of value and its consequent conclusion that any profits by private owners of capital are unjustified and exploitive. The labor theory of value ignores the fact that capital contributes to value by making labor more productive.
Gross domestic product is the market value of the total production in a year of all the factors of production located in a nation. Gross national product is the total production in a year of all the factors of production owned by a nation. Recession is any decrease in gross domestic product that lasts at least six months.
Growth is any increase in gross domestic product. Growth is caused by increases in any or all of: How can real as opposed to nominal production and productivity be accurately measured over the long term? Knowledge and technology can create qualitative improvements in goods and services that confound historical comparisons of real production.
Unemployment is the state of unsuccessfully seeking to sell labor. Frictional unemployment is the amount of short-term unemployment caused by the process of matching jobs with job-seekers. Structural unemployment is the amount of long-term unemployment caused by long-term changes in the mix of job skills demanded by employers. The natural rate of unemployment is the sum of the frictional and structural unemployment rates. The mos t likely explanation is some kind of ratchet effect that keeps wages from falling when demand for labor decreases, so that unemployment substitutes for wage cuts.
There are perhaps sociological reasons why employers and employees are reluctant to see wages cut. Also, minimum wage laws probably cause some of the unemployment of low-productivity workers. A multiplier is the ratio of the increase in the equilibrium level of aggregate output to the independent increase in some input.
The multiplier for an increase or decrease in a balanced government budget is 1. The money supply is the amount of money in circulation, usually measured as M1 or M2. M1 is all currency held outside banks plus all deposits against which a check may be written.
M2 is M1 plus all accounts which are easily convertible into currency, such as savings and money market accounts. The velocity of money is the ratio of nominal GDP to the money supply. A central bank is the institution in a nation that creates currency, regulates the money supply, and stabilizes the banking system. The required reserve ratio is the fraction of any bank's deposits that must be held at the nation's central bank.
Banks are able to create money by making loans, but only if they have reserves in excess of the required reserve ratio. The money multiplier is the ratio of increase in money supply to increase in reserves. The law of diminishing returns states that applying additional units of a production factor out of proportion to other production factors will eventually yield smaller increases in production. Additional capital increases the productivity of labor, which increases the demand for labor, which increases the price of labor wages.
The equilibrium price of and return to each production factor is equal to its productivity as measured by marginal revenue product. Thus the standard of living for laborers is ultimately determined by the productivity of labor.
The short run is the time scale on which there is a fixed scale of production and no entry or exit of firms from the market. The long run is the time scale on which firms can enter or exit markets and scale production as they choose. The productivity of a production factor is the amount of its output per unit input. The marginal revenue product of a variable production factor is the additional revenue earned by employing an additional unit of that factor.
Investment is the creation of new capital. Depreciation is the decline in an asset's value over time, due usually to accumulated use or obsolescence. Speculation is the buying and selling of goods, and especially factors of production, with the intent of profiting from their changing market value over time. Speculation performs the socially useful function of targeting investment to the production factors that are most productive. Even short-term speculation performs this role, because short-term speculators must determine the net present value as it will be perceived in the near future, which recursively depends on the long-term net present value.
Pareto optimality is the condition that obtains when no person can be made more happy without making some person less happy. The labor supply in an economy like America's is inelastic, in that the labor supply does not change much when wages change. Thus payroll taxes levied on employers are actually paid by employees, because they will generally still work for wages lowered by the tax.
If the labor supply were elastic, then employers would have to raise wages by the amount of the tax in order to keep their labor supply.
Minimum wage laws tend to increase unemployment among low-wage earners by over-pricing their labor and thus decreasing the demand for it. The social benefit of a minimum wage is financed through a hidden and production-distorting tax that falls on only certain goods and services rather than on the general tax base.
Unions with monopolistic control over the labor supply in a particular industry enforce artificially high wages that lead to suboptimal levels of production and employment. Rent control prevents the supply of housing from expanding to meet the demand, and transfers income from those unlucky enough to be landlords to those lucky enough to have a n increasingly scarce lease. In theory this third dimension is independent of the first two, but in practice it correlates imperfectly with the personal liberty vs.
The two sorts of enfranchisement for which the correlation is weakest are fetal status see Pro-Choice and citizenship. Favoring enfranchisement of non-citizens implies support for free trade, liberal immigration, foreign aid, human rights abroad, and humanitarian interventionism as opposed to isolationism or imperialism.
Foreign intervention has historically been imperialist rather than humanitarian, and so doves have usually been progressives, and hawks have usually been reactionaries. Thus being "pro-choice" on abortion is as disingenuous as being "pro-choice" on slave-owning.
The position actually being advocated is the non-personhood of fetuses and slaves, respectively. But "No personhood for fetuses" is not a very fun bumper sticker, and so opponents of fetal personhood choose to obscure the real issue. The following history of humanity will supplement traditional political history who did what with technological, intellectual, economic, and military history how and why things were done.
Modern humans spread rapidly from their origins in E. Africa and SW Asia. Modern humans reached Australia from 60 to 40 Kya, and apparently caused the extinction of much megafauna there, such as the rhino-sized marsupial herbivore Diprotodon.
As in Australia, megafauna that had not coevolved with hominids soon became extinct when humans arrived. European humans retreated to southern European refugia during the last glacial maximum Wurm IV around 17 Kya. The end of the last ice age led to a recolonization of Europe around 13 Kya.
The penultimate great biological advance on Earth was the evolution of hominid intelligence. This led directly to the hominids' first great technological revolution at the beginning of the Paleolithic Age by 2 Mya: Tools and fire granted to hominids a mastery over predators, prey, and the elements that was literally unimaginable to other primates.
The second technological revolution was also the most recent great biological advance on Earth: The development of language, watercraft, and weaving combined to allow early modern humans from Africa and SW Asia to master climates and locales throughout the world. The third revolution was the development of agriculture at the beginning of the Neolithic Age about 10 Kya. The resulting specialization led to the advanced development of writing, government, and science. The fourth revolution was the Industrial Revolution that was under way by It included the development of heat engines, medicine, electromagnetics, and later atomics.
The Industrial Revolution was of course only possible because the Scientific Revolution that began during the Renaissance. However, it was not until the Industrial Revolution that living standards finally made a leap to levels that would have been unimaginable to Aristotle or even Newton. The fifth revolution is the current Information Revolution.
It had started by with the development of electronics, computing, and networking, which together had major impacts on commerce and communications by the s and s. The Information Revolution will continue with the nascent developments of photonics and genetics.
It will largely complete the liberation of humanity from tyranny and superstition. It will witness the completion of humanity's basic understanding of the origin, mechanism, and fate of mind, life, and the universe itself. By about a sixth revolution will be under way, driven by some combination of: By about , modifications to the human genome will no longer be confined to changing the frequency or expression of existing genes, but will include the design of new genes.
This will ultimately transform humanity into a new and improved species. After engineering the human genome, the next and perhaps last technological revolution will be to engineer the human? The first step will be the creation of neurological interfaces between human brains and computing devices. Another step might be the perhaps neuron-by-neuron replacement of some brain components with improved artificial parts.
Or, it may be possible for a person to gradually offload mental processing from her brain to her computational prostheses. Perhaps eventually she could dispense with her fragile mortal brain altogether, so as to gain immortality while still preserving personal identity. In the absence of other information about humanity's prospects, the Doomsday Argument would be significant.
In the presence of almost any such information, the Doomsday Argument is irrelevant. The paranormal phenomena alleged in by many humans will never prove to be real and will over time be recognized as delusions, hysteria, myths, nonsense, and hoaxes. There will never be any reanimation of humans whose brains have suffered any of the degradation that occurs at normal temperatures when metabolism ceases.
Human personalities may someday be crudely simulated, but such simulations will never have significant fidelity and would not in any event have the identity of the simulated personality. Humans will never have a definitive answer to the question of why there is something rather than nothing.
Humans may, however, eventually be able to show that no definitive explanation of existence is possible. There will never be a way to travel or communicate through space at speeds greater than that of light. Nor will there be a way to warp spacetime to circumvent this restriction.
There will never be a way to travel or communicate backwards in time. While time travel is not explicitly impossible under the known laws of physics, the proposed wormhole mechanism for it would require energies and technologies that are simply not achievable. Note also that a wormhole time machine would not allow travel back to before the wormhole was created.
There will never be a way for humans to travel via transmission of information describing their physical constitution. Quantum considerations almost certainly preclude the extraction of a sufficiently detailed description, and such a discontinuous process would not preserve personal identity. The only possible way would be a gradual and continuous disassembly and reassembly with an ongoing causal link between the two separated halves. Like teleportation, transferal of a human mind from a brain to an artifact is almost certainly impossible and would nevertheless not preserve personal identity.
Were either technology possible, then a minor improvement would be a non-destructive version that preserves the original body and brain, thus revealing the technology to be a duplicator rather than a teleporter or uploader. The possible technology closest to uploading would be a relatively gradual and continuous transformation of the functioning human brain into another substrate.
Energy and Momentum Non-Conservation. There will never be a way to increase the available energy or change the net momentum in a closed system. Cognitive ability can increase quantitatively in efficiency, flexibility, speed, capacity, bandwidth, and network associativity, but not qualitatively in its kind of reasoning or knowing.
Humanity is very unlikely to undergo significant further natural evolution. Since the beginning of the Neolithic Age, the development of humanity has been influenced much more by changes in culture than changes in genes. This will continue indefinitely, even considering genetic engineering. The Singularity is what Vernor Vinge describes as a moment in the future when the ongoing exponential increases in technological capability culminate in a discontinuity beyond which predictions based on continuous extrapolations do not apply.
One candidate for the Singularity is when humanity improves artificial intelligence to the point that it is better than humans at improving artificial intelligence. Another candidate is when the world's computers are networked into a single self-conscious mind. A third is when runaway productivity is achieved through artifactual life or nanotechnology , perhaps provided by extraterrestrial intelligence.
The Singularity will not happen. First, the limits to intelligence apply to artificial intelligence as much as to natural. Second, intelligence is likely not to vary qualitatively as a function of things like processing speed or memory that are increasing exponentially. Third, the effort to make minds faster or smarter will quite likely be subject to diminishing returns.
Fourth, artificial minds will at first not be designed but rather grown and evolved, and will be subject to most of the same limits as minds that are naturally grown and evolved.
There will never be a way to repel matter by virtue of its mass , or even to just shield the attractive gravitational force of mass. Nor will there be an inertial drive -- a way to accelerate an object uniformly, as in a gravitational field. Vacuum or Zero-Point Energy. It is unlikely that humans will ever be able to extract useful amounts of energy from the vacuum or zero point.
While faith will continue to dwindle sharply, mysticism will continue to absorb an infusion of former fideists as they confront Darwinism and are exposed to Eastern mystical traditions. Mysticism will thereafter decline asymptotically to a core minority devoted to altered mental states and ecological primitivism.
The revolutions in biology and physics from to , and the subsequent technological improvements in telecommunications and productivity, will continue to fuel the spread of humanist skepticism. In developed societies like America, belief in revelation will dwindle as rapidly as did for example belief in the subhmanity of Negroids. The decline of revelation-based faith will be somewhat disguised by its transformation into a bland mystical reverence for the alleged intention of revelation, but the loss of dogmatic faith will be apparent to those who bother noticing it.
Key indicators will be the decreasing number of humans who believe that their mind -- including memories, consciousness, and personality -- will survive death, or who have serious beliefs in the paranormal.
Continental philosophy will continue to thrive for at least a century, especially among humans who misunderstand or fear the recent progress in science, technology, and sociopolitics viz. Positivism will be the tacit or explicit belief of those leading this ongoing progress.
Positivist epistemology and extropian ethics will in the Third Millennium displace first Continental philosophy and eventually most competing forms of mysticism and faith. This will complete the move toward skeptical empiricism that began in the Renaissance. Most fundamental philosophical issues will thenceforth be considered settled, similar to how Realism and Substance Dualism are no longer serious philosophical positions. These developments have some chance of being altered by two technological advances: While extropian ethics is unlikely to be affected, either advance could offer compelling contributions to epistemology or even metaphysics.
The most likely contributions would be toward clarification and formalization, and not towards radically alternative philosophical positions.
Origin of the universe. In the first few decades after , humans will create a quantum theory of gravity that will unify it with the other physical forces. By roughly , humans will learn almost all they will ever know about how the laws of physics are constrained to be the way they are, how they allowed for the Big Bang to happen, and how many physical free variables there are.
By about , molecular biologists will be able to describe in increasing detail how life based on ribonucleic and amino acids arose on Earth four billion years ago as a result of auto-catalytic chemical processes of increasing complexity.
Biologists will also be able to estimate how probable or improbable the development of life was. Over the first century or two after , biologists will greatly increase human understanding of how and why life evolved as it did over the last few billion years. In particular, anthropology will reach a general but not detailed understanding of how and why intelligence developed in hominids.
It is likely that by about , humans will discover. Humans will in the 's slowly reverse-engineer the genomes of H. Humans will in the 's gradually unravel the details of how the neural processes of the human brain create mental phenomena like consciousness , cognition , perception , affect , and volition.
Sociology and Political Science. Humans will grow increasingly convinced that libertaria n capitalism under federal republican democracy is the sociopolitical system that best provides for human justice and prosperity. Cognitivism will continue to be the most successful school of psychology, and Freudianism will be more and more widely discredited.
Human efforts to communicate with cetaceans and with other primates will be tightly constrained by the limited cognitive and linguistic ability of these animals. Aided in part by human genomics, linguists will make some more progress in tracing the family tree of human languages, but will never know many details about how the first human languages arose and what they were like.
Fluctuations of theme and emphasis in the interpretation of history will continue but will ultimately dampen out. There will not be a theory of history that can reliably predict the future or deterministically explain the past. Humans will by establish permanent manned stations in Earth orbit and perhaps on the moon, primarily for microgravity and spacecraft manufacturing.
Extraterrestrial mining and mass production for terrestrial use is unlikely ever to be competitive with terrestrial processes. Extraterrestrial energy collection or generation is likely not to be competitive with terrestrial processes until well after Earth has too much heat pollution to be able to use the extra energy.
There are several reasons humans will want to establish ecologically self-sufficient colonies beyond Earth: If attempted at all, the terraforming of Mars, Venus, or a moon of Jupiter or Saturn would likely not begin for several thousand years and might take thousands of years more to complete. Artifactual Life is life created by intelligence and not based on natural life. Humans will in about two centuries be able to create artificial systems that can reproduce themselves. After another century or so, humans will be able to create Von Neumann probes.
Will humans find a way to transform their natural brains into artificial ones that are easier to maintain and augment? Such techniques might depend on molecular biology and neuropsychology as much as on nanotechnology and information processing. When and if humans detect extraterrestrial intelligence ETI , several possibilities for communication will exist.
If ETI is detected through electromagnetic emissions over interstellar distances that are not intended to communicate with emerging civilizations such as earth's, then humanity will have to introduce itself. The important issues will be what to tell and what to ask. Humanity should tell ETI a summary of its knowledge of itself and the universe, perhaps by sending information similar to that in this text.
The summary would have to be made intelligible to ETI, perhaps by including a multimedia dictionary and grammar of the relevant human language. Humanity should ask ETI for a summary of the ETI's knowledge, including available answers for humanity's major unanswered questions and technological assistance in areas like communication, information processing, energy, transportation, and materials. If ETI is detected through electromagnetic signals over interstellar distances that are intended to communicate with emerging civilizations, then there is a wide range of possible messages the signals could encode.
ETI might be broadcasting merely its existence, telling nothing more than the sort of rudimentary information that humanity included in its own Arecibo transmission. Another extreme possibility is that a federation of ETIs might be broadcasting a continuously-updated "Encyclopedia Galactica" summarizing all their knowledge.
Any such message would be designed to be readily intelligible at least at a superficial level, while advanced and detailed understanding might overtax humanity's current linguistic or technological competence. The third possibility is for 2-way communication, for which interactive latency is the critical variable. Interstellar communication would have a latency of at least decades or centuries, while communication with an ETI presence inside the solar system would have a latency of at most a few hours.
Interstellar 2-way communication would merely be a series of 1-way transmissions and receptions. By contrast, intrastellar communication could permit the exchange of time-critical information or even material goods. ETI could greatly accelerate advances in. Storage and recording technologies will increase in capacity, speed, and affordability, such that the major cost associated with storage will be the intelligent effort required to organize or digest it.
Humans will by be able to digitally record, archive, and transcribe as much as they want of what they see, hear, and say over their entire lifetimes. An ever-increasing majority of existing text, audio, video, and images will be digitally archived into what will be in effect a library of humanity searchable from anywhere on the global network. Existing automated translation technology will make archived texts available in any major human language.
Real-time voice recognition will by be combined with automatic translation and speech generation to produce a crude but effective "universal translator" that will allow a monolingual human to converse at least slowly and simply with any speaker of any major human language.
Pre-recorded television programming will by no longer be mainly viewed on broadcast channels carrying occasional commercials. Such viewing will first move to time-shifted commercial-skipping recording and then to on-demand downloading financed by integrated banner and product placement advertising as well as by voluntary micropayment tips.
Even live programming e. Photorealistic computer-generated imagery will by replace physical actors, sets, and locations for many video applications, but actors will still be used as input models. Tourism will expand to eventually include currently inaccessible places like the North and South Poles, the summit of Everest, seabottom shipwrecks, and even Tranquility Base on the moon. Virtual visual and auditory reality will by be the preferred way to play computer games.
Humans will continue to play and spectate at sports, while outdoor and wilderness recreation will increase in popularity. Dogs and cats will continue to be humans' favorite pets, but by they will be genetically improved e.
Electronic gambling and pornography will become available to any adult who wants them, and adult access to prostitution will continue to expand.
Most psychotropics will be legalized by , especially as neurochemistry becomes more able to manage the problems of addiction and withdrawal. For distances of up to about ten kilometers, humans will increasingly be using battery-powered conveyances such as ultracompact cars, bicycles, and scootboards. Human bodily flight will by have overcome problems of safety and energy cost, but nuisance due to noise and wash will limit its use in urban areas. Nanotechnology could in theory allow for lighter-than-air bodily flight if it could just construct a lightweight vacuum sphere 5 meters in diameter.
For distances of up to several hundred kilometers, humans will continue to use cars and their successors indefinitely. In densely populated areas, conventional buses and trains will maintain their popularity, until the autodrive revolution in around Automated vehicular and traffic control will merge the best properties of road and rail, creating a unified system of roads with rail-like traffic flows. By VTOL aircraft will be sufficiently cheap, safe, and easy to control that they will be as widely owned as recreational vehicles are in However, nuisance issues will restrict where they can land and takeoff, and safety will require that they fly under at least semi-automated traffic control in busy flight corridors.
Air travel will continue to get cheaper and more efficient in the first decades after By humans will apply supersonic and perhaps hypersonic travel to a few more commercial intercontinental routes. Air traffic congestion around busy metropolitan areas will be partly abated by automated traffic control but may ultimately require shifting some of the passenger load to long-range high-speed subsonic trains.
Ships will continue to handle bulk transport without major changes such as heavy use of of hydrofoils or hovercraft. Space propulsion will eventually transition from chemical and ion to fusion and eventually antimatter. Plugged devices will continue indefinitely to be powered by electricity delivered as alternating current over a power grid that may eventually start taking advantage of superconductivity.
Unplugged devices will continue to be powered by chemical batteries that will be the limiting technology for more and more applications. Heating devices will continue to be powered by a combination of fossil fuels and electricity. Internal combustion in vehicles will be supplemented by batteries and flywheels before being replaced by hydrogen fuel cells around Energy storage through anti-matter containment will by be feasible for space propulsion and military explosives.
Safe and efficient anti-matter batteries would be as revolutionary as chemical batteries have been, but may not be practical before Fear of nuclear warfare will continue to make conventional warfare an important capability.
Another approach targets utrophin production. Utrophin is a protein similar to dystrophin that is not affected by muscular dystrophy.
If utrophin production could be upregulated, the disease might be halted or slowed. If the dystrophin gene is being read by protein synthesis machinery and it reaches a mutation, it stops and does not complete the protein. Drugs are being trialed that cause the protein-making equipment to skip the mutated content and still continue to create dystrophin. Rather than target the genes behind muscular dystrophy, some researchers are attempting to slow the inevitable muscle wasting.
Muscles, in standard circumstances, can repair themselves. Research into controlling or increasing these repairs could show some benefits for people with muscular dystrophy. Researchers are looking at the possibility of inserting muscle stem cells capable of producing the lacking dystrophin protein.
Current projects are looking at the most useful type of cells to use and ways in which they could be delivered to skeletal muscle. During the early stages of muscular dystrophy, myoblasts also called satellite cells repair and replace faulty muscle fibers.
As the myoblasts become exhausted, the muscles are slowly turned into connective tissue. Some studies have attempted to insert modified myoblast cells into muscles to take over from the exhausted natural myoblasts. Article last updated by Yvette Brazier on Mon 18 December All references are available in the References tab. DMD gene - dystrophin. Human Gene Therapy Clinical Development.
Learning about Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Duchenne muscular dystrophy and dystrophin: Muscular dystrophy information page. Muscular dystrophy - types. Lacau St Guily, J. Autologous myoblast transplantation for oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy: MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional.
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