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Labeling foods as "good" and "bad" creates problems for people trying to develop healthy eating habits. We can usually find a way to make it work. There are a variety of different medications to choose from depending on the specific condition of each person. Those that touch not just our vanity, but also our fears of growing old. The Relevance of History for Current Debates".
Prepackaged foods are not for everyone and typically not something to use forever. They can be very limiting and create the sense of being "on a diet. Most people find that they only want to use this type of a diet for the short-term or for one or two meals per day.
The other negative aspect of this diet is that the prepackaged foods contain the artificial sweeteners Sucaralose and Acesulfame K. The dietary focus on this diet also has some limitations. The idea of "good carbs" and "bad carbs" is controversial.
While there is some truth to the role of glycemic index in hunger, it is not a guaranteed tool for weight management. Labeling foods as "good" and "bad" creates problems for people trying to develop healthy eating habits. A well-balanced diet requires whole wheat sources of starch, while allowing for some sugar. Weight Watchers has been around for many years. There have been changes to the program, but weekly meetings have remained a part of the plan. The two diet options that are currently available are the Flex Plan and the Core Plan.
The Core Plan is based on the science of energy density. Energy density refers to the amount of calories in a given weight of food. Foods that are considered low energy dense foods have a small amount of calories for a large volume of food for example, vegetable soups, vegetables, and fruit.
High energy dense foods provide a lot of calories for a small amount of food for example, oils, butter, cream sauce. The Core Plan provides a "balanced diet by centering on a list of healthy foods that keep you full longer. The support and information provided online and in-person sets Weight Watchers apart from most diets out there. There are numerous meetings across the country to choose from. For many people, having a place to weigh-in each week is a key to success.
The focus on a balanced diet, exercise, and behavior changes is another advantage to this diet. The goal is to educate people on all three components and assist with both weight loss and maintenance. The two plans give people an option to find what works best for their own success. Many people have a "been there, done that" attitude when it comes to Weight Watchers.
They have tried it, may have had some success, may have even gone back a couple of times, but end up feeling that it can't help them any longer. The group leaders at the meetings are not trained experts; they are former members who have had success with Weight Watchers. When someone is not having success the options for what to do can be greatly limited by the lack of experience and knowledge of the leader.
There is a strong emphasis on weighing in each week. Many people have a difficult time attending a meeting when they are not having success.
However, most people will not lose weight every single week, so expecting to do so is a recipe for failure. The time when people need the support the most is when they are not losing, but most meetings are not set to address this. While there are two diet options, this still may not be enough for everyone. If counting points and following a low-energy dense diet do not work for you, there is no other option left.
The best weight loss diet is one that fits your lifestyle and needs, and you can't always get that with this plan.
I also agree to receive emails from MedicineNet and I understand that I may opt out of MedicineNet subscriptions at any time. Lose Weight, and Keep It Off. It is indisputable that as a country we are more overweight and obese than we have ever been. As a result, the diet industry has grown along with us. Some diets genuinely try to help people lose weight and keep it off, while others look to make money by saying whatever it takes to get people to believe their claims.
You need to be an educated consumer when it comes to weight loss. It's not enough to see that a doctor is the author of a book.
You need to digest what is being said, and look for the facts supporting the claims. It takes modifications in behavior, diet, and activity to succeed at weight loss. It also takes time, patience, commitment, and lots of hard work. There will never be one diet that is the "cure" for everyone. If you are having difficulties with weight loss, seek helf from your physician. Dieting is a complex issue and ongoing professional support may be needed for success.
It is possible to lose weight and keep it off, so never give up hope. Instead, find what works best for you right now, and be open to change as you go along. There are many reasons for sudden weight gain when there are no changes in diet or exercise. Learn to identify the cause of your sudden weight gain. A type 2 diabetes diet or a type 2 diabetic diet is important for blood sugar glucose control in people with diabetes to prevent complications of diabetes.
There are a variety of type 2 diabetes diet eating plans such as the Mediterranean diet, Paleo diet, ADA Diabetes Diet, and vegetarian diets. Learn about low and high glycemic index foods, what foods to eat, and what foods to avoid if you have type 2 diabetes. Triggers for migraine headaches include certain foods, stress, hormonal changes, strong stimuli loud noises , and oversleeping. Treatment guidelines for migraines include medicine, pain management, diet changes, avoiding foods that trigger migraines, staying hydrated, getting adequate sleep, and exercising regularly.
Prevention of migraine triggers include getting regular exercise, drinking water daily, reducing stress, and avoiding trigger foods. Staph Infection Staphylococcus or staph is a group of bacteria that can cause a multitude of diseases. Staph infections can cause illness directly by infection or indirectly by the toxins they produce. Symptoms and signs of a staph infection include redness, swelling, pain, and drainage of pus.
Minor skin infections are treated with an antibiotic ointment, while more serious infections are treated with intravenous antibiotics. Constipation is a common problem, and almost everyone has been constipated at one time or another. There are foods that can help prevent constipation and also provide relief, for example, kiwi, prunes, beans your choice of type! Check out these top 15 foods to avoid because they cause constipation.
Some foods to avoid include, white rice and breads, caffeine, bananas, alcohol, processed foods, and frozen dinners. Weight Gain Shockers Slideshow Pictures. Take the Quiz on Belly Fat. Medically reviewed by Joseph Palermo, D. Related Article Surprising Reasons for Weight Gain There are many reasons for sudden weight gain when there are no changes in diet or exercise.
Surprising Reasons for Weight Gain. Low iron or underlying disease, like cancer, may be to blame. Treatment can resolve anemia.
Physical therapy can help a patient with arthritis to work out stiffness without damaging their joints. Occupational therapy teaches the patient how to reduce joint strain during daily activities. Those receiving occupational or physical therapy will learn about their arthritis, be given a dietary plan if they are overweight, get foot care advice, and learn methods of relieving discomfort.
Congestive heart failure CHF refers to a condition in which the heart loses the ability to function properly. Heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, myocarditis, and cardiomyopathies are just a few potential causes of congestive heart failure. Signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure may include fatigue, breathlessness, palpitations, angina, and edema. Physical examination, patient history, blood tests, and imaging tests are used to diagnose congestive heart failure.
Treatment of heart failure consists of lifestyle modification and taking medications to decrease fluid in the body and ease the strain on the heart. The prognosis of a patient with congestive heart failure depends on the stage of the heart failure and the overall condition of the individual.
Take the Diabetes Quiz and learn the causes, signs, symptoms, and types of this growing epidemic. What does diabetes have to do with obesity and diet? Learn about life as a diabetic. Learn about fat-fighting foods such as grapefruit, hot peppers, vinegar, and more.
Discover the benefits along with surprising facts about how they may fight fat. Processed meats like pepperoni, beef jerky, and chicken nuggets are associated with an increased risk of health problems like colon cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. That's why many doctors recommend avoiding them to reduce cancer risks and other health risks. Lap band gastric banding surgery, also referred to as laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding LAGB is a surgical procedure in which an adjustable belt is placed around the upper portion of the stomach.
Side effects, risks, and complications from lap band surgery should be discussed with a surgeon or physician prior to the operation. Weight loss without dieting? No diet, no problem. Learn the best way to lose weight with these weight loss tips designed to help men and women lose weight and feel great. Migraine headache is a type of headache associated with a sensitivity to light, smells, or sounds, eye pain, severe pounding on one side of the head, and sometimes nausea and vomiting.
The exact cause of migraine headaches is not known. Malnutrition in early life is believed to play a role in the rising rates of obesity in the developing world. Consistent with cognitive epidemiological data, numerous studies confirm that obesity is associated with cognitive deficits. The study of the effect of infectious agents on metabolism is still in its early stages.
Gut flora has been shown to differ between lean and obese humans. There is an indication that gut flora in obese and lean individuals can affect the metabolic potential. This apparent alteration of the metabolic potential is believed to confer a greater capacity to harvest energy contributing to obesity. Whether these differences are the direct cause or the result of obesity has yet to be determined unequivocally. An association between viruses and obesity has been found in humans and several different animal species.
The amount that these associations may have contributed to the rising rate of obesity is yet to be determined. Certain aspects of personality are associated with being obese. There are many possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of obesity. In particular, they and other appetite-related hormones act on the hypothalamus , a region of the brain central to the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure.
There are several circuits within the hypothalamus that contribute to its role in integrating appetite, the melanocortin pathway being the most well understood.
The arcuate nucleus contains two distinct groups of neurons. Both groups of arcuate nucleus neurons are regulated in part by leptin. Thus a deficiency in leptin signaling, either via leptin deficiency or leptin resistance, leads to overfeeding and may account for some genetic and acquired forms of obesity.
The World Health Organization WHO predicts that overweight and obesity may soon replace more traditional public health concerns such as undernutrition and infectious diseases as the most significant cause of poor health. Solutions look at changing the factors that cause excess food energy consumption and inhibit physical activity. Efforts include federally reimbursed meal programs in schools, limiting direct junk food marketing to children,  and decreasing access to sugar-sweetened beverages in schools.
Many organizations have published reports pertaining to obesity. This is a comprehensive evidence-based guideline to address the management and prevention of overweight and obesity in adults and children.
Comprehensive approaches are being looked at to address the rising rates of obesity. The Obesity Policy Action OPA framework divides measure into 'upstream' policies, 'midstream' policies, 'downstream' policies. The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. In the short-term low carbohydrate diets appear better than low fat diets for weight loss. Five medications have evidence for long-term use orlistat , lorcaserin , liraglutide , phentermine—topiramate , and naltrexone—bupropion.
The most effective treatment for obesity is bariatric surgery. In earlier historical periods obesity was rare, and achievable only by a small elite, although already recognised as a problem for health. But as prosperity increased in the Early Modern period , it affected increasingly larger groups of the population. In the WHO formally recognized obesity as a global epidemic.
Once considered a problem only of high-income countries, obesity rates are rising worldwide and affecting both the developed and developing world. Obesity is from the Latin obesitas , which means "stout, fat, or plump". Ancient Greek medicine recognizes obesity as a medical disorder, and records that the Ancient Egyptians saw it in the same way. It was common among high officials in Europe in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance  as well as in Ancient East Asian civilizations.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution it was realized that the military and economic might of nations were dependent on both the body size and strength of their soldiers and workers. During the 20th century, as populations reached their genetic potential for height, weight began increasing much more than height, resulting in obesity. Many cultures throughout history have viewed obesity as the result of a character flaw. The obesus or fat character in Ancient Greek comedy was a glutton and figure of mockery.
During Christian times the food was viewed as a gateway to the sins of sloth and lust. People of all ages can face social stigmatization, and may be targeted by bullies or shunned by their peers. The weight that is viewed as an ideal has become lower since the s. In Britain, the weight at which people considered themselves to be overweight was significantly higher in than in Obesity is still seen as a sign of wealth and well-being in many parts of Africa.
This has become particularly common since the HIV epidemic began. Some attribute the Venus figurines to the tendency to emphasize fertility while others feel they represent "fatness" in the people of the time. This continued through much of Christian European history, with only those of low socioeconomic status being depicted as obese. These women, however, still maintained the "hourglass" shape with its relationship to fertility. After centuries of obesity being synonymous with wealth and social status, slimness began to be seen as the desirable standard.
In addition to its health impacts, obesity leads to many problems including disadvantages in employment   and increased business costs. These effects are felt by all levels of society from individuals, to corporations, to governments. Obesity prevention programs have been found to reduce the cost of treating obesity-related disease.
However, the longer people live, the more medical costs they incur. Researchers, therefore, conclude that reducing obesity may improve the public's health, but it is unlikely to reduce overall health spending. Obesity can lead to social stigmatization and disadvantages in employment. The most common injuries in this group were due to falls and lifting, thus affecting the lower extremities, wrists or hands, and backs.
Some research shows that obese people are less likely to be hired for a job and are less likely to be promoted. Specific industries, such as the airline, healthcare and food industries, have special concerns. Due to rising rates of obesity, airlines face higher fuel costs and pressures to increase seating width. With the American Medical Association 's classification of obesity as a chronic disease,  it is thought that health insurance companies will more likely pay for obesity treatment, counseling and surgery, and the cost of research and development of fat treatment pills or gene therapy treatments should be more affordable if insurers help to subsidize their cost.
In , The European Court of Justice ruled that morbid obesity is a disability. The Court said that if an employee's obesity prevents him from "full and effective participation of that person in professional life on an equal basis with other workers", then it shall be considered a disability and that firing someone on such grounds is discriminatory. The principal goal of the fat acceptance movement is to decrease discrimination against people who are overweight and obese.
A number of organizations exist that promote the acceptance of obesity. It has more of a global orientation and describes its mission as promoting size acceptance and helping to end weight-based discrimination.
The American legal system, however, has decided that the potential public health costs exceed the benefits of extending this anti-discrimination law to cover obesity.
In the New York Times published an article on the Global Energy Balance Network , a nonprofit founded in that advocated for people to focus on increasing exercise rather than reducing calorie intake to avoid obesity and to be healthy.
Hand and Steven N. The healthy BMI range varies with the age and sex of the child. As with obesity in adults, many factors contribute to the rising rates of childhood obesity. Changing diet and decreasing physical activity are believed to be the two most important causes for the recent increase in the incidence of child obesity.
Obesity in pets is common in many countries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the medical journal, see Obesity journal. Relative risk of death over 10 years for white men left and women right who have never smoked in the United States by BMI. Sedentary lifestyle and Exercise trends. Social determinants of obesity. World obesity prevalence among males left and females right in Percentage of the population either overweight or obese by year.
Retrieved 2 February Archives of General Psychiatry. The New England Journal of Medicine. Criteria and classification of obesity in Japan and Asia-Oceania. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics. Treatment of the Obese Patient Contemporary Endocrinology.
Retrieved 5 April Frontiers of Hormone Research. Recognizes Obesity as a Disease". Archived from the original on 23 June Retrieved 24 June Retrieved 15 February Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. Center for disease control and prevention. Retrieved 6 April The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
Formulation and Treatment in Clinical Health Psychology. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. American Journal of Medical Genetics. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. European clinical practice guidelines" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 26 April International Journal of Obesity. Annals of Internal Medicine. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis.
The standardized multi-center protocol is an approach used in many large-scale multi-center studies funded by the NHLBI.
A unique feature of the DASH diet was that the foods and menu were chosen based on conventionally consumed food items so it could be more easily adopted by the general public if results were positive.
The nutritional conceptualization of the DASH meal plans was based in part on this research. Two experimental diets were selected for the DASH study and compared with each other, and with a third: Magnesium and Potassium levels were close to the 75th percentile of U. The DASH diet was designed to provide liberal amounts of key nutrients thought to play a part in lowering blood pressure, based on past epidemiologic studies.
One of the unique features of the DASH study was that dietary patterns rather than single nutrients were being tested. Researchers have also found that the DASH diet is more effective than a low oxalate diet in the prevention and treatment of kidney stones, specifically calcium oxalate kidney stones the most common type.
Participants ate one of the three aforementioned dietary patterns in 3 separate phases of the trial, including 1 Screening, 2 , Run-in and 3 Intervention. In the screening phase, participants were screened for eligibility based on the combined results of blood pressure readings. In the 3 week run-in phase, each subject was given the control diet for 3 weeks, had their blood pressure measurements taken on each of five separate days, gave one hour urine sample and completed a questionnaire on symptoms.
At this point, subjects who were compliant with the feeding program during the screening phase were each randomly assigned to one of the three diets outlined above, to begin at the start of the 4th week. The intervention phase followed next; this was an 8-week period in which the subjects were provided the diet to which they had been randomly assigned. The first group of study subjects began the run-in phase of the trial in September while the fifth and final group began in January Alcohol was limited to no more than two beverages per day, and caffeine intake was limited to no more than three caffeinated beverages.
The minority portion of the study sample and the hypertensive portion both showed the largest reductions in blood pressure from the combination diet against the control diet. The hypertensive subjects experienced a drop of At the end of the intervention phase, Apart from only one subject on the control diet who was suffering from cholecystitis, other gastrointestinal symptoms had a low rate of incidence. Like the previous study, it was based on a large sample participants and was a multi-center, randomized, outpatient feeding study where the subjects were given all their food.
The day intervention phase followed, in which subjects ate their assigned diets at each of the aforementioned sodium levels high, intermediate and low in random order, in a crossover design. The primary outcome of the DASH-Sodium study was systolic blood pressure at the end of the day dietary intervention periods.
The secondary outcome was diastolic blood pressure.