10 Comments For This Mod
Anyone that sells RV supplies sells proper hoses. The problem with our Government and with the civil service in general is that when orders are passed down from the top, officers often suspend their own common sense and their sense of right and wrong in an attempt at giving their superiors the impression that the instructions are being rigorously followed. I suggest seeing your vet for proper diagnosis and treatment. Methyl tertiary butyl ether MTBE is a common synthetic organic chemical used for a number of years as a gasoline additive. Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account. Are all water contaminants bad for our health?
The Color of Your Urine Is an Important Marker
It is fairly rare to read about specific disease outbreaks in the US and other developed countries that can be linked to viruses, in part because they are relatively difficult to detect, and in part because of the effective public water treatment systems in the country. The EPA regulates the maximum allowable levels for this bacteria in drinking water, and most people most of the time either do not encounter these bacteria in their drinking water or do not get sick.
The series of articles, Tap Water at Risk by the Houston Chronicle, reported that in the USA in , there were 3, water purification utilities in the US that reported violating the federal health standards for fecal bacteria contamination. These utilities together served Despite these statistics, disease outbreaks in people on municipal water linked to E. According to a note in the Denver Post p. These are one celled organisms, both of which form dormant cyst stages that are resistant to typical levels of chlorination, cause gastrointestinal disease, and are prevalent in the environment.
As water systems monitor for Cryptosporidium, the likelihood exists that it will be detected occasionally at low levels in finished water derived from surface water sources. Cryptosporidium oocysts are very resistant to disinfection, and even a well-operated water system cannot ensure that drinking water will be completely free of this parasite. In people with normally functioning immune systems, Cryptosporidiosis is manifested as an acute, self-limiting diarrheal illness lasting 7 to 14 days and it is often accompanied by nausea, abdominal cramps, and low-grade fever.
You usually hear about exposure to airborne asbestos causing disease. Asbestos fibers can also be present in water, and it is regulated by the EPA because asbestos exposure from water has been linked to an increase in the risk of certain cancers. Other suspended solids - Unless the materials in the water are themselves dangerous as discussed above , suspended solids are typically a nuisance rather than hazardous. Suspended materials in the water, however, can interact with the disinfection processes making them less effective.
Water professionals also use turbidity of the finished water as an indicator of its quality. If the purification process is letting enough solids through that the water is cloudy, there is a chance that some of the "stuff" contributing to the turbidity is harmful. To conclude the discussion on contaminants, you might find the opening exchange of Popular Science's exclusive interview Oct.
Why do Americans now buy so much bottled water? I think it's because of a lack of information, quite frankly. People have heard things, they're scared, and there's a product on their grocery store shelf. So it seems as if buying it is the way to get some information, the way to have some control over the situation.
What it also says to me is that the consumer is willing to make an investment in safe drinking water, and that we have to prove to them that investing in their tap water is what makes sense. I would say that people in this country have every reason right now to ask questions. I wouldn't take for granted the safety of this nation's drinking water anymore. There's a series of problems from emerging threats like microbials. There's an infrastructure problem. We should just be honest about that.
Could you comment further on this trend of people wanting to do things themselves, for example, buying bottle water instead of investing in the quality of their tap water? There is a lot of evidence that people have concerns and they want to do something themselves, whether it's buying bottled water or one of those filters to put on a water pitcher.
I am very hopeful that the more we can provide people with information about what's actually being found in the source water and what actions are being taken to treat it, the more people will feel confident in their drinking water and have a greater willingness to invest in their local water system.
If, after browsing the pages on this site, you have further questions, comments, new web pages to suggest, or if you are interested in information about drinking water filtration systems, please let me know.
This chemical group is the trihalomethanes THMs. THMs are formed when the chlorine that is added to the water interacts with organic material also in the water, like leaf fragments, etc. The level of THMs in water is usually greater in water systems where surface water is the source, and levels typically vary seasonally with the organic content of the source water supply.
Chloroform is usually the most common THM, and in Denver for instance, it varies from about 10 micrograms per liter in the winter to about 50 micrograms per liter in the summer with an average around micrograms per liter.
Overall, the published research points more to an increase in dental caries post-CWF cessation than otherwise. However, the literature is highly diverse and variable in methodological quality. Fluoridated water appears to provide a better protective effect against dental caries than fluoridated household salt among schoolchildren from developing countries. Fabruccini A, et al. Increased impact on oral health-related quality of life OHRQoL was related to the severity of cavitated dentine lesions, but fluorosis resulting from combined fluoride exposure from early ages was not of concern for the adolescents.
Combined fluoride exposure from fluoridated drinking water, consumption of food prepared with fluoridated water, and daily twice brushing with conventional fluoride toothpaste from early ages may be recommended to control caries progression at population level without impact on OHRQoL. This information is particularly relevant for supporting oral health police for disadvantaged populations.
Aimée NR, et al. Taken together, these analyses do not support the hypothesis that optimal fluoridation of drinking water contributes to naturally occurring osteosarcoma in dogs. Rebhun RB, et al. A Community Guide Systematic Review: The analysis was conducted in The benefit-only studies used regression analysis, showing that different measures of dental costs were always lower in communities with water fluoridation.
Benefit-cost ratios ranged from 1. Recent evidence continues to indicate that the economic benefit of community water fluoridation exceeds the intervention cost.
Further, the benefit-cost ratio increases with the community population size. Ran T, et al. Adjusting the level of fluoride in the community water systems results in a percent reduction in tooth decay among children receiving lifelong exposure to fluoridated water.
Other estimates based earlier YK dental reviews suggests percent reduction in tooth decay among children receiving community fluoridated water. An examination of online comments pertaining to fluoridation cessation in Calgary in Types of evidence mentioned were identified, and the scientific papers cited were reviewed.
Most often, no evidence was cited. When evidence was cited, types included individuals viewed as authorities and personal experiences. The findings have implications for communication with the public about fluoridation.
First, to the extent that the public consults the scientific literature, it is essential that the methodological limitations of a study, as well as its relevance to community water fluoridation, be widely and promptly communicated. Second, scientific evidence is only one component of why some people support or do not support fluoridation, and communication strategies must accommodate that reality.
Fluoridated milk delivered daily in schools in Bulgaria resulted in substantially lower caries development compared with children in schools receiving milk without added fluoride. The nation-wide experiences from milk fluoridation indicate that such a public health scheme can be effective to the global fight against dental caries of children. Petersen PE, et al.
The inverse association between dietary fluoride intake levels and prevalence of dental caries implies that the introduction of community caries prevention programmes may be beneficial. Such programmes would include water fluoridation and a fluoride supplementation programme.
Kim MJ, et al. In the full models, children in the nonfluoridated areas had significantly higher prevalence of dental caries [PR for the primary: The results from the caries severity data indicate that the initiation of water fluoridation results in reductions in dmft of 1. There is insufficient information to determine whether initiation of a water fluoridation programme results in a change in disparities in caries across socioeconomic status SES levels.
There is insufficient information to determine the effect of stopping water fluoridation programmes on caries levels. No studies that aimed to determine the effectiveness of water fluoridation for preventing caries in adults met the review's inclusion criteria.
With regard to dental fluorosis, we estimated that for a fluoride level of 0. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Six million people in England live in areas where the level of fluoride in water is adjusted to reduce the significant public health burden of dental caries. The dental effects of fluoride are well established, but evidence for suggested adverse health effects is limited, with a lack of rigorous small area population studies that control for confounding.
This study aims to test the association between water fluoridation schemes and selected health outcomes using the best available routine data sources. Ecological level exposure to fluoridated water was estimated for standard small areas and administrative districts in England using Geographical Information Systems and digitized boundaries based on known patterns of water supply.
The association between fluoridation and dental and nondental health indicators was tested using multivariable regression models including ecological level confounding variables. Health indicator data were obtained from routine sources. There was no strong evidence of an association between fluoridation and hip fracture, Down syndrome, all-cancer, all-cause mortality or osteosarcoma.
Fluoridation was negatively associated with the incidence of renal stones 7. This study uses the comprehensive data sets available in England to provide reassurance that fluoridation is a safe and highly effective public health measure to reduce dental decay.
Although lower rates of certain nondental outcomes were found in fluoridated areas, the ecological, observational design prohibits any conclusions being drawn regarding a protective role of fluoridation. Young N, et al. This cost effectiveness analysis supports an earlier economic analysis of community water fluoridation in New Zealand by Wright et. CWF remained a cost effective public health intervention in New Zealand despite an overall reduction in dental caries.
This finding also agrees with a number of economic analyses of CWF conducted in countries similar to New Zealand, 7, It should be noted however, that for smaller communities cost effectiveness was more marginal. In smaller communities cost effectiveness was more dependent on the risk profile of the population. CWF would be more cost effective in communities with a higher risk of dental caries.
Fyfe C, et al. Safety, Effectiveness and Value in Oral Health: The objective of this symposium was to review the scientific evidence supporting CWF and consider the implications for optimizing the use of fluoride in public health and clinical practice.
The following presentations were held at the symposium: Effectiveness of fluorides - Findings of evidence-based reviews: The use of fluoride has been associated with a substantial reduction in caries in children and adolescents. The presentation also highlighted evidence gaps for effectiveness of certain fluoride modalities, as well as the relationship among effectiveness, dose, and safety for the products.
With the exception of enamel fluorosis, no other adverse effects are associated with community water fluoridation. The health assessment of fluoride in drinking water: Gaps in scientific knowledge regarding water fluoridation and other fluoride modalities: Fluoridated water reduces tooth decay in adults, even if they start drinking it after childhood.
Communities that implement fluoridation can expect benefits to accrue for both future and current generations. More people in the population benefit from water fluoridation than previously was thought. The greater benefit has a significant impact on calculations of population cost-effectiveness. Recent findings from Australia add to six decades of evidence showing that community water fluoridation prevents dental caries in adults.
The evidence should be considered when formulating health policies and public health programs. Translating evidence into public health practice: The translation of scientific evidence into public health practice demands ongoing efforts to update estimates of effectiveness and costs of the intervention, assure safety, identify and address gaps in knowledge, and apply data-driven approaches to monitor implementation and communicate with stakeholders.
Gooch — J Can Dent Assoc ; Dental caries prevalence and severity for Indigenous and non-Indigenous children, in both dentitions, was lower in fluoridated areas compared to non-fluoridated areas. Among non-Indigenous children, there was a The difference between Indigenous children in fluoridated 3. Among non-Indigenous children there was a The difference between Indigenous children in fluoridated 1.
Water fluoridation is effective in reducing dental caries, but does not appear to close the gap between non-Indigenous children and Indigenous children. Lalloo R, et al. Through this final recommendation, the U. Public Health Service PHS updates and replaces its Drinking Water Standards related to community water fluoridation—the controlled addition of a fluoride compound to a community water supply to achieve a concentration optimal for dental caries prevention.
In this guidance, the optimal concentration of fluoride in drinking water is the concentration that provides the best balance of protection from dental caries while limiting the risk of dental fluorosis. The earlier PHS recommendation for fluoride concentrations was based on outdoor air temperature of geographic areas and ranged from 0. Systematic reviews of the scientific evidence related to fluoride have concluded that community water fluoridation is effective in decreasing dental caries prevalence and severity.
Effects included significant increases in the proportion of children who were caries-free and significant reductions in the number of teeth or tooth surfaces with caries in both children and adults. When analyses were limited to studies conducted after the introduction of other sources of fluoride, especially fluoride toothpaste, beneficial effects across the lifespan from community water fluoridation were still apparent.
Fluoride in saliva and dental plaque works to prevent dental caries primarily through topical -remineralization of tooth surfaces. Consuming fluoridated water and beverages, and foods prepared or processed with fluoridated water, throughout the day maintains a low concentration of fluoride in saliva and plaque that enhances remineralization.
Although other fluoride-containing products are available and contribute to the prevention and control of dental caries, community water fluoridation has been identified as the most cost-effective method of delivering fluoride to all members of the community regardless of age, educational attainment, or income level. Implications for Community Water Fluoridation in the U. We found that total water intake was not associated with temperature. Plain water intake was weakly associated with temperature in unadjusted coefficient 5 0.
However, these models explained little of the individual variation in plain water intake unadjusted: Optimal fluoride concentration in drinking water to prevent caries need not be based on outdoor temperature, given the lack of association between total water intake and outdoor temperature, the weak association between plain water intake and outdoor temperature, and the minimal amount of individual variance in plain water intake explained by outdoor temperature.
These findings support the change in the U. Public Health Service recommendation for fluoride concentration in drinking water for the prevention of dental caries from temperature-related concentrations to a single concentration that is not related to outdoor temperature.
Increasingly, support for water fluoridation has come under attack. We seek an explanation, focusing on the case of Waterloo, Ontario, where a referendum overturned its water fluoridation program. In particular, we test whether individuals perceive the risks of water fluoridation based not on 'hard' scientific evidence but on heuristics and cultural norms. A sample of residents in Waterloo were surveyed in June using random digit dialing. We use factor analysis, OLS regression, as well as t-tests to evaluate a survey experiment to test the credibility hypothesis.
There is no difference between Group B and the control, possibly because people's already general support for fluoridation is less prone to change when told that other public organizations also support fluoridation. Public health officials should take into account cultural norms and perceptions when individuals in a community appear to rise up against water fluoridation, with implications for other public health controversies.
Strong evidence supports the safety and efficacy of CWF. The benefits are most pronounced for low SES groups. Public health professionals have a responsibility to counter such misinformation and to support water fluoridation. Howat P, et al. To monitor the changes in dental caries prevalence of 5- to 7-year-old children living in a fluoridated area, a newly fluoridated area and in an area without water fluoridation, in NSW, Australia. The caries prevalence changed over time. In , the mean dmft index was 1.
By , these mean dmft scores were 0. In the two areas where children received fluoridated water, the significant caries index was 2. The significant caries score for children in the unfluoridated location was 3. Multivariate analysis showed that over time the differences in dental caries prevalence between the established fluoride area and the newly fluoridated area diminished. However, children in the unfluoridated control area continued to demonstrate significant differences in the mean number of decayed teeth compared with children in the fluoridated comparator sites, and the proportions of children free from decay were significantly higher in the fluoridated areas than in the unfluoridated area.
Fluoridation of public water supplies in Gosford and Wyong offers young children better dental health than those children who do not have access to this public health measure. Blinkhorn AS, et al. Australians outside state capital cities have greater caries experience than their counterparts in capital cities.
We hypothesized that differing water fluoridation exposures was associated with this disparity. Examiners measured participant decayed, missing and filled teeth and DMFT Index and lifetime fluoridation exposure was quantified.
Multivariable linear regression models estimated differences in caries experience between capital city residents and others, with and without adjustment for fluoridation exposure. There was greater mean lifetime fluoridation exposure in state capital cities Crocombe LA, et al.
Literature reviews have been highly selective and critical analysis of that literature has been poor. The authors show a disturbing tendency to focus on a small number of poor quality studies that reinforce their own views, while ignoring contradictory evidence from much stronger studies and reviews. Foley — British Dental Journal, Vol. The present meta-analysis suggests that chronic fluoride exposure from drinking water does not significantly increase the risk of hip fracture.
Given the potential confounding factors and exposure misclassification, further large-scale, high-quality studies are needed to evaluate the association between exposure to fluoride in drinking water and hip fracture risk. Yin XH, et al. It was found that the greater the percentage of households with a fluoridated water supply in an area, the higher the probability that respondents had all their own teeth. There was no significant relationship between the proportion of households with a fluoridated water supply in an area and bone health.
This study suggests that water fluoridation provides a net health gain for older Irish adults, though the effects of fluoridation warrant further investigation. Koh R, et al. Oral health promotion activities should consider these differing perceptions of CWF among groups to tailor oral health messaging appropriately.
Mork N, Griffin S. Optimally versus nonoptimally fluoridated areas in Israel: These results clearly indicate that there is an association between adequacy of water fluoridation and hospitalization due to dental infections among children and adolescents.
This effect is more prominent in populations of lower socioeconomic status. Klivitsky A, et al. Prospective Study in New Zealand: We conducted a prospective study of a general population sample of those born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between April 1, , and March 30, Residence in a CWF area, use of fluoride dentifrice and intake of 0.
No clear differences in IQ because of fluoride exposure were noted. These findings held after adjusting for potential confounding variables, including sex, socioeconomic status, breastfeeding, and birth weight as well as educational attainment for adult IQ outcomes.
These findings do not support the assertion that fluoride in the context of CWF programs is neurotoxic. Associations between very high fluoride exposure and low IQ reported in previous studies may have been affected by confounding, particularly by urban or rural status.
Broadbent JM, et al. The children living in the well-established fluoridated area had less dental caries and a higher proportion free from disease when compared with the other two areas which were not fluoridated. Fluoridation demonstrated a clear benefit in terms of better oral health for young children. Setting the Record Straight on Fluoride: Data from 2, year-olds and 3, year-olds from schools in 16 areas were analysed.
Queensland's average dmfs was 4. The lowest levels of dental caries were observed in long-term fluoridated Townsville. In the full models, Townsville children had significantly lower caries experience RR for dmfs: Do L, Spencer AJ.
For the group as a whole, we concluded that: Bal IS, et al. Dental caries remains the most common chronic disease of childhood in the United States. Caries is a largely preventable condition, and fluoride has proven effectiveness in the prevention of caries.
The goals of this clinical report are to clarify the use of available fluoride modalities for caries prevention in the primary care setting and to assist pediatricians in using fluoride to achieve maximum protection against dental caries while minimizing the likelihood of enamel fluorosis. Clark M, et al. The weight of the scientific evidence in peer-reviewed literature does not support an association between community water fluoridation and any adverse health effects or systemic disorders, including an increased risk for cancer, Down syndrome, heart disease, osteoporosis, bone fractures, immune disorders, low intelligence, renal disorders, Alzheimer disease, or allergic reactions.
Not only is community water fluoridation safe and effective, it is also cost saving, and it is the least expensive way to deliver the benefits of fluoride to all residents of a community. Fluoride is a double edged sword. The assessment of dental caries and fluorosis in endemic fluoride areas will facilitate in assessing the relation between fluoride concentrations in water with dental caries, dental fluorosis simultaneously. The caries prevalence was less among year-old children The prevalence was more among females The prevalence was more in low fluoride area The fluorosis prevalence increased with increasing fluoride concentration with no difference in gender and age distribution.
Low fluoride areas require fluoridation or alternate sources of fluoride, whereas high fluoride areas require defluoridation. Sukhabogi Jr, et al. The higher level of lifetime fluoridation exposure was associated with substantially lower caries experience in younger rural adults, largely due to a lower number of filled teeth.
Crocombe L, et al. The aim of the present study was to analyze caries experience in relation to the occurrence of fluorosis in 12 year olds in a natural fluoride area. The presence of fluorosis associates with lesser caries experience in year-old lifetime residents of an area with moderately-elevated natural fluoride.
In this study, we evaluated whether fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm remained significantly elevated at 8 h after four different oral hygiene procedures in volunteers living in an area with fluoridated water supply. The fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm were not significantly different among the treatments. The frequency of brushing with a fluoride dentifrice and additional use of fluoride mouthrinse followed by brushing with a fluoride dentifrice did not affect the fluoride concentrations in biofilm and saliva at 8 h after the last procedure.
The results of this study are in agreement with the findings of most of the studies conducted in areas with a fluoridated water supply. A possible explanation for these is that plaque-binding sites for long-term fluoride retention are occupied by fluoride ions largely in communities with fluoridated water, but not where the water contains only traces of this ion. British Dental Journal Concern over limited access to water fluoridation: By contrast, evidence suggests that children living in fluoridated areas, such as the West Midlands, have around half the rate of tooth decay of those living in non-fluoridated areas, and thousands have been spared from traumatic and distressing operations.
Research indicates that adults also benefit. British Dental Journal , The analysis of routinely collected HES data may help identify the impact of water fluoridation schemes. Elmer TB, et al. In the United States, 95 percent of teens and 85 percent of adults use the Internet. Two social media outlets, Facebook and Twitter, reach more than billion users. This study describes anti-fluoridation activity and dominance on the Internet and social media, both of which are community water fluoridation CWF information sources.
Monthly website traffic to major fluoridation websites was determined from June to May Anti-fluoridation information significantly dominates the Internet and social media.
Thousands of people are being misinformed daily about the safety, health, and economic benefits of fluoridation. Mertz A, Allukian M. Small area analysis of osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma diagnosed among year-olds in Great Britain, The findings from this study provide no evidence that higher levels of fluoride whether natural or artificial in drinking water in GB lead to greater risk of either osteosarcoma or Ewing sarcoma. Blakey K1, et al. Environmental risk factors for uveal melanomas cancer of the iris, ciliary body, and choroid have not been identified.
To search for these, we examined the correlation of age-adjusted eye cancer incidence rates, a surrogate for uveal melanoma rates, in U. Fluoride is known to inhibit the growth of microbial agents that cause choroiditis and choroidal lesions in animals. A Prospective Cohort Study: The findings suggest that fluoride exposures at the typical levels for most US adolescents in fluoridated areas do not have significant effects on bone mineral measures. Levy SM, et al. This study supported that water fluoridation could not only lead to a lower prevalence of dental caries, but also help to reduce the effect of SES inequalities on oral health.
Cho HJ, et al. Children in remote Indigenous communities in Australia have levels of dental caries much greater than the national average. One such, the Northern Peninsula Area of Far North Queensland NPA , had an oral health survey conducted in , shortly before the introduction of fluoridated, reticular water.
Children were again surveyed in , following five years exposure. There has been considerable improvement in child dental health in the NPA over the past years. In light of continued poor diet and oral hygiene, water fluoridation is the most likely explanation.
The cost-effectiveness for this small community remains an issue which, in the current climate of political antagonism to water fluoridation in many quarters, requires continued study. Johnson NW, et al. To examine inpatient hospital episodes statistics for dental extractions as an alternative population marker for the effectiveness of water fluoridation by comparing hospital admissions between two major strategic health authority SHA areas, the West Midlands SHA-largely fluoridated--and the North West SHA--largely unfluoridated.
Data was aggregated by SHA area and quinary age group. The difference in rates between the two most deprived PCTs was fold.
While 6-year-old children who had not ingested fluoridated water showed higher dft in the WF-ceased area than in the non-WF area, year-old children in the WF-ceased area who had ingested fluoridated water for approximately 4 years after birth showed significantly lower DMFT than those in the non-WF area. This suggests that the systemic effect of fluoride intake through water fluoridation could be important for the prevention of dental caries.
These evaluations showed clearly that the optimal daily intake of fluoride in milk is effective in preventing dental caries.
The amount of fluoride added to milk depends on background fluoride exposure and age of the children: An advantage of the method is that a precise amount of fluoride can be delivered under controlled conditions.
The cost of milk fluoridation programmes is low, about - 2 to 3 per child per year. Fluoridation of milk can be recommended as a caries preventive measure where the fluoride concentration in drinking water is suboptimal, caries experience in children is significant, and there is an existing school milk programme. Beneczy J et al. More frequent tooth brushing was protective of sound surfaces, and fluoride in home tap water was also protective, but significantly more so for adolescents in low-income families.
Broffitt B, et al. The mechanisms of action of fluoride have been discussed controversially for decades. The cavity-preventive effect for teeth is often traced back to effects on demineralization. However, an effect on bacterial adhesion was indicated by indirect macroscopic studies. To characterize adhesion on fluoridated samples on a single bacterial level, we used force spectroscopy with bacterial probes to measure adhesion forces directly.
We tested the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus oralis , and Staphylococcus carnosus on smooth, high-density hydroxyapatite surfaces, pristine and after treatment with fluoride solution. All bacteria species exhibit lower adhesion forces after fluoride treatment of the surfaces. These findings suggest that the decrease of adhesion properties is a further key factor for the cariostatic effect of fluoride besides the decrease of demineralization.
Loskill P, et al. Water fluoridation is an effective safe means of preventing dental caries, reaching all populations, irrespective of the presence of other dental services. Regular monitoring of dental caries and fluorosis is essential particularly with the lifelong challenge which dental caries presents. The results showed that the drinking-water fluoridation program produced substantial savings.
Public health decision-makers could develop economic arguments to support wide deployment of this population-based intervention whose efficacy and safety have been demonstrated and acknowledged.
Tchouaket E, et al. Dental caries is a major public health problem worldwide, with very significant deleterious consequences for many people.
The available data are alarming in Canada and the province of Quebec. The water fluoridation program has been shown to be the most effective means of preventing caries and reducing oral health inequalities. This article analyzes the cost-effectiveness of Quebec's water fluoridation program to provide decision-makers with economic information for assessing its usefulness.
Eric Tchouaket, et al. John Skinner, et al. Overall, we found no association between chronic fluoride exposure and the occurrence of hip fracture. The risk estimates did not change in analyses restricted to only low-trauma osteoporotic hip fractures. Chronic fluoride exposure from drinking water does not seem to have any important effects on the risk of hip fracture, in the investigated exposure range. Nesman P, et al. Understanding public concern and building from common ground when engaging the public can effectively build trust.
Posted by Addam Corre on 27 Sep, March 21, For example, in Ancient Greece in the 5th century BC, participants would throw their wine dregs across the room to hit a target. There were prizes for success and punishments for failure. In China, during the Tang dynasty in the 6 th century, players had to drink according to numbers drawn at random with the winner being the last one standing.
So, drinking games are nothing new. While it is true that modern games are sometimes played in bars and clubs, the most obvious place for these activities is at a party. So our Life Daily team concentrated on finding those games that would best fit into a party atmosphere.
Less than this number and the game will not be very thrilling. This is a card game: Deal each player a card face down, then all must turn over cards at the same time. Pick a word no one is allowed to say — and whoever says it has to drink.